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Jupiter, also called Jove, Latin Iuppiter, Iovis, orDiespiter, the chief ancient Roman and Italian god. Like Zeus, the Greek god with whom he is etymologically identical (root diu, “bright”), Jupiter was a sky god. One of his most ancient epithets is Lucetius (“Light-Bringer”) and later literature has preserved the same idea in such phrases as sub Iove, “under the open sky.” As Jupiter Elicius he was propitiated with a peculiar ritual to send rain in time of drought as Jupiter Fulgur he had an altar in the Campus Martius, and all places struck by lightning were made his property and were guarded from the profane by a circular wall.
Throughout Italy he was worshiped on the summits of hills thus, on the Alban Hill south of Rome was an ancient seat of his worship as Jupiter Latiaris, which was the centre of the league of 30 Latin cities of which Rome was originally an ordinary member. At Rome itself on the Capitoline Hill was his oldest temple here there was a tradition of his sacred tree, the oak, common to the worship both of Zeus and of Jupiter, and here, too, were kept the lapides silices, pebbles or flint stones, which were used in symbolic ceremonies by the fetiales, the Roman priests who officially declared war or made treaties on behalf of the Roman state.
Jupiter was not only the great protecting deity of the race but also one whose worship embodied a distinct moral conception. He is especially concerned with oaths, treaties, and leagues, and it was in the presence of his priest that the most ancient and sacred form of marriage (confarreatio) took place. The lesser deities Dius Fidius and Fides were, perhaps, originally identical and certainly were connected with him. This connection with the conscience, with the sense of obligation and right dealing, was never quite lost throughout Roman history. In Virgil’s Aeneid, though Jupiter is in many ways as much Greek as Roman, he is still the great protecting deity who keeps the hero in the path of duty (pietas) toward gods, state, and family.
But this aspect of Jupiter gained a new force and meaning at the close of the early Roman monarchy with the building of the famous temple on the Capitol, of which the foundations are still to be seen. It was dedicated to Iuppiter Optimus Maximus (i.e., the best and greatest of all the Jupiters), and with him were associated Juno and Minerva, in a fashion that clearly indicates a Greco-Etruscan origin, since the combination of three deities in one temple was foreign to the ancient Roman religion, while it is found in both Greece and Etruria. The temple’s dedication festival fell on September 13, on which day the consuls originally succeeded to office, accompanied by the Senate and other magistrates and priests. In fulfillment of a vow made by their predecessors, the consuls offered to Jupiter a white ox, his favourite sacrifice, and, after rendering thanks for the preservation of the state during the past year, they made the same vow as that by which their predecessors had been bound. Then followed the feast of Jupiter. In later times this day became the central point of the great Roman games. When a victorious army returned home the triumphal procession passed to this temple.
Throughout the Roman Republic this remained the central Roman cult and, although Augustus’ new foundations (Apollo Palatinus and Mars Ultor) were in some sense its rivals, that emperor was far too shrewd to attempt to oust Iuppiter Optimus Maximus from his paramount position he became the protecting deity of the reigning emperor as representing the state, as he had been the protecting deity of the free republic. His worship spread over the whole empire.
The ancient Babylonians were the first known people to record their sightings of the planet Jupiter. The Babylonians’ recordings date back to the seventh century BC. It was initially named after Jupiter, the king of the Roman gods. To the Greeks, the planet represented Zeus, their god of thunder, while the Mesopotamians saw Jupiter as their god, Marduk.
Jupiter and Zeus are equivalents in ancient mythology. They share the same traits and characteristics.
The Greek god Zeus was the top Olympian god in the Greek pantheon. After he took credit for rescuing his brothers and sisters from their father Cronus, Zeus became king of heaven and gave his brothers, Poseidon and Hades, the sea and the underworld, respectively, for their domains.
Zeus was the husband of Hera, but he had many affairs with other goddesses, mortal women, and female animals. Zeus mated with, among others, Aegina, Alcmena, Calliope, Cassiopeia, Demeter, Dione, Europa, Io, Leda, Leto, Mnemosyne, Niobe, and Semele.
He is king on Mount Olympus, the home of the Greek gods. He is also credited as the father of Greek heroes and the ancestor of many other Greeks. Zeus mated with many mortals and goddesses but is married to his sister Hera (Juno).
Zeus is the son of the Titans Cronus and Rhea. He is the brother of his wife Hera, his other sisters Demeter and Hestia, and his brothers Hades, Poseidon.
SACRED ANIMALS & PLANTS
Zeus' sacred animals were the eagle and the bull. In myth he abducted the youth Ganymede in the shape of an eagle and the maiden Europa in the guise of a bull.
His sacred plants were the evergreen holm oak and the olive tree. At the ancient oracle of Dodona Zeus' priests were inspired by the rustling of oak-leaves, and at the Olympic Games victors were crowned with a wreath of olive-leaves picked from the god's sacred grove.
Below are examples of the god's animals as depicted in ancient Greek art and photos of his sacred plants:-
1. Eagle 2. Bull 3. Holm oak 4. Olive tree.
Jupiter plays a role in many ancient Roman myths. For example, humans or lesser gods often come to Jupiter for justice or assistance. Phaethon is said to have lost control of his father’s chariot pulled by four horses, which carried the sun across the sky. The intense heat of the sun was scorching the earth, causing fires and creating vast deserts. Jupiter answered the prayers of the mortals by destroying the chariot with his lightning bolt and thunder. In another myth, similar to the biblical account of the Noachian flood, Jupiter assumes human form to see if the rumors of man’s wickedness are true. He is appalled by their actions, and punishes them using a great flood.
Jupiter was worshiped on hilltops throughout Italy, the seat of the Roman Empire. Even before Rome came to power as an empire, Jupiter Latiaris was worshiped on the hills south of Rome, then part of a coalition of twelve cities. Oaths were sworn outdoors on the hills, under the oversight of Jupiter. Rome itself was situated on the Capitoline Hill, home to the temple shared as a triad, or trinity, by Jupiter, Minerva, and Juno. There, worship involved a sacred oak tree and the lapides silices, flint stones used ceremonially by the priests who both declared war and signed treaties. These priests also officiated marriage ceremonies.
Like his Greek counterpart, Zeus, Jupiter was associated with the lightning bolt. Jupiter Elicius was often solicited by worshipers to bring rains in seasons of drought, and areas struck by lightning were hemmed in with a circular wall, considered the claimed property of Jupiter Fulgar and not to be profaned. These areas were purified with the sacrifice of an onion, a human hair, and fish.
The J. Paul Getty Museum
This image is available for download, without charge, under the Getty's Open Content Program.
Statue of Jupiter (Marbury Hall Zeus)
Unknown 207 × 100 × 62.5 cm (81 1/2 × 39 3/8 × 24 5/8 in.) 73.AA.32
Open Content images tend to be large in file-size. To avoid potential data charges from your carrier, we recommend making sure your device is connected to a Wi-Fi network before downloading.
Currently on view at: Getty Villa, Gallery 207, Later Roman Sculpture
Statue of Jupiter (Marbury Hall Zeus)
207 × 100 × 62.5 cm (81 1/2 × 39 3/8 × 24 5/8 in.)
Portrayed as a mature bearded man, Zeus sits enthroned in his role as king of the gods. Originally he would have held his attributes: a scepter and a thunderbolt. The colossal god towers over his mortal observers. Documented in the 1570s at Tivoli near Rome, the statue once decorated the gardens of the Villa d'Este. It is named for having been in the collection at Marbury Hall in England.
Although it was carved in a Roman workshop in the first century A.D., the inspiration for this image of Jupiter was a Greek sculpture of the 430s B.C., the monumental gold and ivory statue of Zeus created by the sculptor Pheidias (active 470-420 B.C.) for Zeus's temple at Olympia. Pheidias's Zeus was renowned in antiquity as one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, many ancient writers praised it and numerous sculptors copied it.
Cardinal Ippolito II d'Este, Italian, 1509 - 1572 (Villa d'Este, Tivoli, Italy), the statue was displayed at the entrance to the garden at Villa d'Este. By inheritance to his nephew, Cardinal Luigi d'Este, 1572.
1572 - 1586
Cardinal Luigi d'Este, Italian, 1538 - 1586 (Villa d'Este, Tivoli, Italy), Villa d'Este and its contents seized by Cardinal Alessandro Farnese, 1586.
1586 - 1589
Cardinal Alessandro Farnese, Dean of the Sacred College, Italian, 1520 - 1589 (Villa d'Este, Tivoli, Italy), by inheritance to successive deans of the Sacred College, 1589. Seized by Cardinal Alessandro d'Este, by 1605.
By 1605 - 1624
Cardinal Alessandro d'Este, Italian, 1568 - 1624 (Villa d'Este, Tivoli, Italy), by 1611 the statue had been relocated to the center niche of the Fontana dei Draghi in the gardens of the Villa d'Este where it remained until it was purchased by Henry Tresham (1778).
Cardinal Rinaldo d'Este, Italian, 1618 - 1672 (Villa d'Este, Tivoli, Italy)
By 1675 - still in 1685
Francesco II d'Este, Duke of Modena, Italian, 1660 - 1694 (Villa d'Este, Tivoli, Italy)
Henry Tresham, Irish, about 1751 - 1814, sold to Gavin Hamilton, 1778.
1778 - 1781
Gavin Hamilton, British, 1723 - 1798 (Rome, Italy), sold to James Hugh Smith Barry, 1781.
1781 - 1801
James Hugh Smith Barry, British, 1746? - 1801 (Marbury Hall, Cheshire, England), by inheritance to his son, John Smith Barry, 1801.
1801 - 1837
John Smith Barry, English, 1793 - 1837 (Marbury Hall, Cheshire, England), by inheritance to his son, James Hugh Smith Barry, 1837.
1837 - 1856
James Hugh Smith Barry, English, 1816 - 1856 (Marbury Hall, Cheshire, England), by inheritance to his son, Arthur Hugh Smith Barry, 1856.
1856 - 1925
Arthur Hugh Smith Barry, 1st Baron Barrymore, English, 1843 - 1925 (Marbury Hall, Cheshire, England), by inheritance to his nephew, Robert Raymond Smith Barry, 1925.
1925 - 1932
Robert Raymond Smith Barry, English, 1886 - 1949 (Marbury Hall, Cheshire, England), sold to T. Place, 1932.
1932 - 1933
T. Place (Marbury Hall, Cheshire, England), sold to George Smith, 1933.
1933 - 1948
George Smith (Marbury Hall, Cheshire, England), sold to Imperial Chemical Industries, 1948.
Miss E. Parsons (Marbury Hall, Cheshire, England)
Michel Dumez-Onof (London, England), by partial credit and partial purchase, sold to the J. Paul Getty Museum, 1973.
Ancient Art from the Permanent Collection (March 16, 1999 to May 23, 2004)
del Re, Antonio. Dell'antichità tiburtine capitolo V (Rome: n.p., 1611), p. 65.
Venturini, Giovanni Francesco. Le Fontane del giardino estense in Tivoli (Rome: n.p., 1675), pl. II.
Falda, Giovanni Battista. Le fontane di Roma nelle piazze e lvoghi pvblici della città: Con li loro prospetti, come sono al presente (Rome: n.p., 1691).
Cartieri, Gaetano. Inventory of the Villa d'Este, 1752-53. Archivio di Stato at Modena, Busta 72, no. 20.
A Catalogue of paintings, statues, busts, &c. at Marbury Hall, the seat of John Smith Barry, Esq. in the county of Chester. (Warrington : J. and J. Haddock, 1819), p. 17, no. 1.
Clarac, Cte. Frédéric de. Musée de sculpture antique et moderne, ou description historique et graphique du Louvre et de toutes ses parties (Paris: Imprimerie Nationale, 1841-53), III, 396D, 666A.
Overbeck, Johannes. Griechische Kunstmythologie II (Leipzig: Engelmann, 1871), p. 118.
Michaelis, Adolf. "Die Privatsammlungen antiker Bildwerke in England." Archaeologische Zeitung 32 (1875), pp. 1-70, p. 44, no. 1 (under Marbury Hall).
Fiorelli, Giuseppe. Documenti inediti per servire alla storia dei musei d'Italia II, vii (1879), (publication of the inventory of the Villa d'Este from December 3, 1572 from the Archivio di Stato, Rome, vol. 375 [now vol. 6039]) no. 9.
Michaelis, Adolf Theodor Friedrich. Ancient Marbles in Great Britain (Cambridge: University Press, 1882), p. 501, no. 1.
Arndt, Paul, and Walther Amelung. Photographische Einzelaufnahmen antiker Sculpturen (Munich: Verlagsanstalt für Kunst und Wissenschaft, 1893-1940), 3099-3100.
Reinach, Salomon. Repertoire de la statuaire grecque et romaine. 6 vols. (Paris: E. Leroux, 1897-1930), vol. 1 (1897), p. 184.
Ashby, Thomas. "The Villa d'Este at Tivoli and the Collection of Classical Sculptures which it contained." Archaeologia 61, no. 1 (1908), pp. 230, 243, no. 9, pl. 28 (Venturini's view of the Fontana dei Draghi).
Arber, Rutter, Waghorn and Brown. London. "Remaining Contents of the Residence." (March 15-16, 1933), lot 751.
Vermeule, Cornelius C., and Dietrich von Bothmer. "Notes on a New Edition of Michaelis: Ancient Marbles in Great Britain, II." American Journal of Archaeology 60 (1956), p. 321 ff, p. 336.
Vermeule, Cornelius C. "The Colossus of Porto Raphti: A Roman Female Personification." Hesperia 45, no. 1 (January-March 1976), pp. 67-76 p. 71 pl. 12c.
Vermeule, Cornelius C. "The Heroic Graeco-Roman Zeus from the Villa d'Este and Marbury Hall: A Cult Image Created after a Major Hellenistic (Pergamene) Prototype." The J. Paul Getty Museum Journal 5 (1977), pp. 43-44.
Fredericksen, Burton B., Jiří Frel, and Gillian Wilson. Guidebook: The J. Paul Getty Museum. 4th ed. Sandra Morgan, ed. (Malibu: J. Paul Getty Museum, 1978), p. 43.
Vermeule, Cornelius C. Greek Art: Socrates to Sulla From the Peloponnesian Wars to the Rise of Julius Caesar. Art of Antiquity 2, pt. 2 (Boston: Dept. of Classical Art, Museum of Fine Art, 1980), pp. 132, 262 no. 110A, ill.
Podany, Jerry. "The Conservation of Two Marble Sculptures in the J. Paul Getty Museum." The J. Paul Getty Museum Journal 9 (1981), pp. 103-8 p. 103, n. 2.
Bogan, James. "Blake's Jupiter Olympius." Blake: An Illustrated Quarterly 15, no. 4 (Spring 1982), pp. 156-63 p. 159, fig. 4.
Vermeule, Cornelius C. Divinities and Mythological Scenes in Greek Imperial Art (Cambridge, MA: n.p., 1983), fig. 46.
Raeder, Joachim. Die statuarische Ausstattung der Villa Hadriana bei Tivoli (Frankfurt am Main and Bern: Peter Lang, 1983), p. 197, no. V13.
Bianconi, G. "Tivoli e le sue rovine: Immagini dalla letteratura tedesca." In Atti e Memorie LVII (1984), pp. 179-81, pl. XXIII.
Vaughan, Gerard. "James Hugh Smith Barry as a Collector of Antiquities." Apollo 126, no. 305 (July 1987), pp. 10-11, figs. 8-9.
Martin, Hanz Günther. Römische Tempelkultbilder[. ] (Rome: "L'Erma" di Bretschneider, 1987), p. 143.
Maderna, Catharina. Iuppiter Diomedes und Merkur als Vorbilder für römische Bildnisstatuen[. ] (Heidelberg: Verlag Archäologie und Geschichte, 1988), p. 29.
Krause, B. "Trias Capitolina." Ph.D. diss. (Trier University, 1989), p. 37 n. 460, pl. 27.
Landwehr, Christa. "Die Sitzstatue eines bärtigen Gottes in Cherchel. Zur Originalität römischer Vatergottdarstellungen." In Phyromachos-Probleme (31. Ergh. RM), B. Andreae, ed. (Mainz: P. von Zabern, 1990), pp. 107, 112-13, cat. no. G1, pls. 68, 70.
Canciani, Fulvio. "Zeus/Iuppiter." In Lexicon Iconographicum Mythologiae Classicae VIII (1997), pp. 421-70 p. 427, no. 40 pl. 269.
Vlizos, Stavros. Der thronende Zeus: Eine Untersuchung zur statuarischen Ikonographie des Gottes in der spätklassischen und hellenistischen Kunst, Internationale Archäologie 62 (Rahden/Westf.: Leidorf, 1999), pp. 129-30, cat. M.1, pl. 14,1 (Flavian).
The J. Paul Getty Museum Handbook of the Antiquities Collection (Los Angeles: 2002), p. 150-51.
Scott, Jonathan. The Pleasures of Antiquity: British Collectors of Greece and Rome (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2003), pp. 145, 146, fig. 106.
Vorster, Christiane. "Ein spathellenistischer Bronzekopf in Houston / Texas." In Mouseion: beiträge zur antiken Plastik. Festschrift zu Ehren von Peter Cornelis Bol, H. von Steuben, G. Lahusen, H. Kotsidu, eds. (Mohnesee: Bibliopolis, 2007) pp. 369-381, pp. 375, 381, fig. 8.
Musser, Jacob. "Apollo and Marbury Hall Zeus:Politics and Apotheosis in Roman Sculpture." In Building Bridges: 7th Annual Research Conference for Community Colleges, University of California at Irvine, March 2007 (Irvine: University of California, 2007), p. 11.
Coltman, Viccy. Classical Sculpture and the Culture of Collecting in Britain Since 1760 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009), p.130, fig. 43 (sketch by Gavin Hamilton).
Ferruti, Francesco. "La Villa d'Este a Tivoli e la collezione di sculture classiche che conteneva (di Thomas Ashby)." Atti e Memorie della Società Tiburtina di Storia e d'Arte [. ] 82 (2009), (Italian translation of Ashby's 1908 article with commentary) pp. 234, 244, 246, 247, 274, no. 9.
Venetucci, Beatrice Palma . Le collezioni estensi di antichità tra Roma, Tivoli e Ferrara. I. Arredo scultoreo nelle dimore estensi. Studi di Memofonte V (2010), pp. 64, 68.
Cacciotti, Beatrice. Le collezioni estensi di antichità tra Roma, Tivoli e Ferrara. II. Le provenienze delle antichità estensi dagli scavi del XVI secolo. Studi di Memofonte V (2010), p. 77.
The J. Paul Getty Museum Handbook of the Antiquities Collection. Rev. ed. (Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Museum, 2010), p. 148.
Lapatin, K.D.S. "Representing Zeus." In The Statue of Zeus at Olympia. New Approaches, Janette McWilliam et al., eds. (Cambridge: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2011), 90, fig. 14.
Di Mauro, Alberto. Italy Art LA, educational brochure (Los Angeles: Italian Cultural Institute of Los Angeles, 2012), p. 23.
Ferruti, Francesco. "La collezione di sculture antiche di Ippolito II d'Este: su alcuni esemplari". In Ippolito II d'Este: cardinale principe mecenate [conference], Cogotti, Marina and Francesco Paeolo Fiore, eds. (Rome: De Luca editori d'arte, 2013), pp. 368-9, ill.
Christie's, New York. Faces of the Past: Ancient Sculpture from the Collection of Dr. Anton Pestalozzi. Sale cat. October 28, 2019, p. 37.
Students create paper sculptures based on Greek and Roman sculptures, and write stories told from the viewpoint of their sculptures.
Visual Arts English–Language Arts
Lesson in which students research and study artworks that depict Greek and Roman deities and present a mock TV talk show with the deities.
Ham Radio - QRP
Fast forward to late March of 2016. I purchased a used TenTec Eagle from my friend AA4XX and began using it as my primary radio when I wasn't portable. Here again the KX3 trumps the Eagle in nearly every technical aspect and offers dozens more features. I just kept gravitating to use the TenTec radios rather than the Elecraft.
I used the my KX3 for Field Day in 2016 and after I packed up and brought it home the KX3 stayed in my backpack and only came out for portable outings. It did not go back on my desk. The KX3 cried little electronic tears while the Eagle gloated.
|Ten-Tec Eagle -- compact / simple HF transceiver|
Why no love for the KX3?
Time passed, and over the new year break I got to thinking about what I missed about having my KX3 on the desk like its RX/IQ output for HDSDR and the ease working DX splits using it's dual watch capability and it's integration to logging applications like the ability to trigger CW macros from my logging software. The list of "nice-stuff" goes on and on since the KX3 contains multiple kitchen sinks. So I re-organized my desk to make room for the KX3 again and operated with it exclusively over the past few days.
I was getting ear fatigue and my ears rang in the evenings. This was not the sort of ringing in the New Year that I wanted. I had been previously operating the same amount with the Eagle over the past month without the earaches. Something was amiss.
Audio, Audio, Audio
So over time, even when I switched back and forth between radios there was a subtle "ouch" occurring when I used the KX3. I enjoy CW and digging out weak signals can be fun. or it can be painful. I guess when I sat down to use a radio and my hand hovered between the "Oh-so-feature-rich" KX3 and the "Nice-personality" Eagle my brain was saying "choose the nice personality" you're happier that way.
But there was a underlying reality to the choice I was making.
Just the facts mam
I used an audio frequency analyzer to capture audio from each radio by sandwiching the microphone in my headphones. It hears what I would hear. And the graphs tell a tale.
Below is one graph for each radio. The RED graph line in each chart is the averaged "peaked" frequency output audio during the same QSO. Ignore the green line as it was just the instantaneous audio at the time I froze the display between takes. The CW sidetone on each radio is set to 620Hz.
I re-ran this capture for each radio a few times during a lengthy ragchew between two stations. The signal strength was around S5-S7. It wasn't a strong signal which is typical of what I work, especially as the Solar cycle winds down.
I tried the captures with and without noise reduction on each radio. The RF was rolled off as evenly as I could determine for each and both were set to a DSP filter bandwidth of approximately 400Hz. Both radios were using the same antenna and everything was as similar as I make it. RCVR EQ was set flat for the KX3.
Old Town Eureka’s haunted history
Old Town Eureka may be the most haunted location on the West Coast.
That’s Eric Vollmers’ story, and he’s sticking with it.
Vollmers, a social sciences teacher at Arcata High School, is the founder and owner of the Old Town Haunted History Ghost Tours. For the past two years he has led tourists, history buffs, psychics and skeptics in exploring Old Town’s bawdy and mysterious &ldquoother side of history.&rdquo
The Haunted History walking tours last about two hours, and visit 12 locations throughout Old Town Eureka’s streets and alleyways. The tours begin and end at the F Street gazebo. Stories told along the way focus on buildings with recently reported paranormal activity, and investigate the tragic, bizarre and scandalous events that may have led to these hauntings.
The idea for the tour came from Vollmers’ sister. Visiting from out of town in 2010, she mentioned that she had gone on a ghost tour in San Francisco. Vollmers’ sister told him that he should start a similar tour in Old Town.
&rdquoI told her,&rdquo he said, &ldquo ‘You’ve got to be kidding! I’d have to be out of my mind to do a thing like that.’&rdquo
But the idea intrigued him. One afternoon a few months later, Vollmers began asking the employees and owners of various Old Town businesses if anything strange went on in their buildings. Vollmers said he was stunned by the number of stories he unearthed in that first afternoon’s research. In Old Town Eureka, it seems that nearly every building is the site of mysterious events and possibly paranormal encounters.
Vollmers’ first stop on his research trip was the Oberon Grill at 516 Second Street. Constructed in the 1860s or 1870s, the building became home to the high-class Oberon Saloon in 1905. The Oberon’s most legendary claim to fame is as the location of a celebrated bar fight between author Jack London and the young A. Stanwood Murphy, future owner of The Pacific Lumber Co.
The ghost stories of the Oberon, however, center on the apparition of a young woman, who seems to haunt the building’s upstairs rooms. Some stories of meetings with this ghostly figure date back 40 years, while others occurred only months in the past. Historical research by the Oberon’s current owners as well as by Vollmers and his assistants links the ghost with the magnitude 6.4 earthquake that struck Eureka on June 6, 1932.
Like countless other Old Town buildings, the Oberon building housed a brothel at various points in its career. The current Oberon owners light-heartedly acknowledge this past. Their upstairs banquet room is dubbed the Ruby Room after 1930s brothel owner Madam Ruby Smith. Old Town’s history as a red light district — &ldquothe lower end of town&rdquo as respectable Eurekans referred to it — looms large in the stories on the Haunted History tour. For nearly a century this area catered to loggers and off-duty sailors with saloons, card rooms, billiard halls, cabarets, dime-a-dance joints and the ever-present houses of prostitution. Haunted History tour-goers learn of the rapid rise in Eureka’s tally of saloons and houses of ill-fame: from five saloons in 1866 to 65 saloons and 32 brothels around 1910. The area was home to hundreds who made their living in these professions.
Vollmers suggests that this checkered past may play a role in Old Town’s high number of paranormal reports. Perhaps it should be no surprise that the waterfront pleasure district witnessed more than its share of tragedies. Many of the area’s real-life stories of suicides, murders, drownings, persecutions and blighted lives appear to have left supernatural echoes behind them.
Among the stops on the Haunted History tour are 426 and 422 Second Street. Now holding apartments, a new antiques store and Eureka Books, during the 1920s Prohibition days these buildings housed the Louvre Café, the High Lead saloon and the Alpine brothel. The Alpine is memorialized today in a historic preservation plaque which describes it as one of the longest-operating brothels in Eureka.
A quarrel between the owners of these three establishments in 1933 led to what the Humboldt Standard described as &ldquoa frontier days gun duel&rdquo at the back of the Louvre. The gunfight may have also left paranormal traces. Vollmers and his assistants invite tour-goers to make up their own minds on whether the reported activity in the buildings is more likely to be caused by the shooting’s victim or his killer.
&rdquoWe’re not asking you to believe anything,&rdquo Vollmers tells his tours. &ldquoBut we also aren’t making anything up. Everything we’re telling you has been told to us by witnesses or researched in Eureka’s museums and archives. In the end, you’ll believe what you want to believe. All we ask is that you keep an open mind.&rdquo
The Haunted History tours typically make one or two stops inside paranormal hotspots. From time to time tour-goers are able to visit the actual rooms where hauntings are reported.
One such reported hotspot is the Eagle House Victorian Inn at the corner of Second and C streets. The Eagle House was built in 1888. Many stories of paranormal encounters have been reported over the years by hotel staff and guests, as well as by employees and patrons of Gallagher’s Irish Pub located in the Eagle House building.
Valerie Paden, a staff member at Gallagher’s, reports seeing an unexplained flash of light swoop past her in the pub. A similar report comes from fellow staff member Terry Parker. One night around midnight, while she was washing dishes, Parker saw a &ldquosomething&rdquo flash past her right-hand side. As Parker relates the story, her glimpse of that something made her decide to head home in a hurry.
About four years ago Kathy Paden, Gallagher’s owner, had her own paranormal experience in the hotel. As she walked through the Eagle House ballroom, she looked up and saw the figure of a woman standing on the balcony. An instant later, the figure was gone.
Unexplained somethings in a shadowy pub at midnight can be unnerving, but witnesses generally agree that the presences that may linger in the Eagle House are positive ones. A recent attendee on the Old Town Haunted History tour stated that he is sensitive to the paranormal. At an earlier stop on the tour he was shaken by a personal encounter, when he sensed a presence that he believed was very unhappy at being detected by him. But in the Eagle House, this tour-goer firmly stated that he sensed no hostility.
&rdquoThey’re playful,&rdquo he said. &ldquoThey may mess with you a little. But they wouldn’t want to do you any harm.&rdquo
Eagle House manager Beti Trauth affirms that the vibe of the Eagle House is positive. As to whether the Eagle House is actually haunted, Trauth, like Vollmers, encourages everyone to make up their own minds.
&rdquoGuests sometimes ask me whether the hotel is haunted,&rdquo Trauth said. &ldquoI usually ask them, ‘Do you want it to be?’&rdquo
As Halloween approaches, Vollmers and his assistant tour guide anticipate a busy season. They plan to repeat the successful event held last Halloween, when the Lost Coast Rotaract club (a younger version of the Rotary Club) partnered with Haunted History Ghost Tours to create a special fund-raising version of the tour (complete with surprise appearances by club members portraying some of Old Town’s ghostly residents). Another partner in the 2011 event was Opera Alley nightspot the Speakeasy, which held its grand opening last Halloween. The bartenders at the Speakeasy created one of their signature mixed drinks in honor of the Old Town Haunted History Ghost Tours. Aside from such special events, the Haunted History tour does not have a set schedule. The tour is available year around, and usually takes place in the evening. Interested tour-goers should call Vollmers at 672-5012 to schedule a time and date for their tour. Tickets are $20 general admission and $15 for students, with a group discount available for parties of 15 or more.
The claim in the Haunted History advertisements that the tours are &ldquohistoric, illuminating and fun&rdquo was echoed by a recent tour-goer from Sonoma. At the end of a tour she enthused that although she has visited here three previous times, thanks to the Old Town Haunted History tour she now knows Eureka like she never did before.
Locals also enjoy the walk through &ldquoEureka’s other side of history.&rdquo Stacey Windbigler went on the Old Town Haunted History tour last year and is eager to go again. In fact, the fun she had on Eureka’s tour has inspired her to try out other place’s ghost tours.
Windbigler recently visited Nevada and went on a ghost tour in Virginia City.
&ldquoEureka’s tour beats that one hands-down.,&rdquo she said. &ldquoThe stories here are better the storytelling is better. Virginia City’s ghost tour can’t hold a candle to Eureka’s.&rdquo
Perhaps that is only as it should be, in what may be the West Coast’s most haunted city.
(Editor’s note: Alex Service is an assistant tour guide with Old Town Haunted History Ghost Tours.)
Ganymede was abducted by Zeus from Mount Ida in Phrygia, the setting for more than one myth element bearing on the early mythic history of Troy. Ώ] Ganymede was there, passing the time of exile many heroes undergo in their youth, by tending a flock of sheep or, alternatively, during the chthonic or rustic aspect of his education, while gathering among his friends and tutors. Zeus, either sending an eagle or turning himself to an eagle transported Ganymede to Mount Olympus. His father was mollified by the gift of fine horses: in the Iliad, the Achaean Diomedes is keen to capture the horses of Aeneas: "They are of the stock that great Jove gave to Tros in payment for his son Ganymede, and are the finest that live and move under the sun." ΐ]
As a Trojan, Ganymede is identified as part of the earliest, pre-Hellenic level of Aegean myth. Plato's Laws states the opinion that the Ganymede myth had been invented by the Cretans– Minoan Crete being a power center of pre-Greek culture – to account for "pleasure [. ] against nature" Α] imported thence into Greece, as Plato's character indignantly declares. Homer doesn't dwell on the erotic aspect of Ganymede's abduction, but it is certainly in an erotic context that the goddess refers to Ganymede's blond Trojan beauty in the Homeric Hymn to Aphrodite, mentioning Zeus's love for Trojan Ganymede as part of her enticement of Trojan Anchises.
The Argonautica of Apollonius of Rhodes presents a vignette (in Book III) of an immature Ganymede furious for having been cheated at knucklebones by Eros. Aphrodite then arrives and chides her son, Eros, for "cheating a beginner." The Roman poet Ovid adds vivid detail - and veiled irony directed against critics of homosexual love: aged tutors reaching out to grab him back with impotent fingers, and Ganymede's hounds barking uselessly at the sky. Β] Γ] Statius' Thebaid describes a cup worked with Ganymede's iconic mythos (1.549):
"Here the Phrygian hunter is borne aloft on tawny wings, Gargara’s range sinks downwards as he rises, and Troy grows dim beneath him sadly stand his comrades vainly the hounds weary their throats with barking, pursue his shadow or bay at the clouds."
In Olympus, Zeus granted him immortality and the office of cupbearer to the gods, supplanting Hebe. J.A.Edm. Veckenstedt (Ganymedes, Libau, 1881) endeavoured to prove that Ganymede is the genesis of the intoxicating drink mead, whose original home was Phrygia.
All the gods were filled with joy to see the youth, except for Hera, Zeus's consort, who detested Ganymede.
In a possible alternative version, the Titan Eos, dawn-goddess and connoisseur of male beauty, kidnapped Ganymede as well as her better-remembered consort, his brother Tithonus, whose immortality was granted, but not eternal youth. Tithonus indeed lived forever but grew more and more ancient, eventually turning into a cricket, a classic example of the myth-element of the Boon with a Catch. Tithonus is placed in the Dardanian lineage through Tros, an eponym for Troy, as Ganymede. Robert Graves Δ] interpreted the substitution of Ganymede for Tithonus in a few references to the myth as a misreading of an archaic icon that would have shown the consort of the winged Goddess bearing a libation cup in his hand. Ε] A genesis for the Ganymede myth as a whole has been offered in a Hellene reading of one of the numerous Akkadian seals depicting the hero-king Etana riding heavenwards on an eagle. Ζ]
Zeus carries off Ganymede, who holds his gift, a cockerel: Η] polychromed terracotta, Late Archaic, 5th century BCE, Olympia
Tros grieved for his son. Sympathetic, Zeus had Hermes deliver a gift of two immortal horses, so swift they could run over water (or perhaps the gift was a golden vine). Hermes also assured Ganymede's father that the boy was now immortal and would be the cupbearer for the gods, a position of much distinction. The theme of the father recurs in many of the Greek coming-of-age myths of male love, suggesting that the pederastic relationships symbolized by these stories took place under the supervision of the father.
Zeus later put Ganymede in the sky as the constellation Aquarius, which is still associated with that of the Eagle (Aquila). However his name would also be given by modern astronomy to one of the moons of Jupiter, the planet that was named after Zeus's Roman counterpart. Ganymede was afterwards also regarded as the genius of the fountains of the Nile, the life-giving and fertilizing river. Thus the divinity that distributed drink to the gods in heaven became the genius who presided over the due supply of water on earth.
Ganymede rolling a hoop and bearing aloft a cockerel— a love gift from Zeus, illustrated in pursuit, on obverse of vase. Attic red-figure krater, 500 BC Berlin Painter (Louvre)
In poetry, Ganymede was a symbol for the ideally beautiful youth and also for homosexual love, sometimes contrasted with Helen of Troy in the role of heterosexuality. One of the earliest references to Ganymede was in Homer's Iliad. In Crete, where, Greek writers asserted, the love of boys was reduced to a system, king Minos, the primitive law-giver, was called the ravisher of Ganymede. Thus the name which once denoted the good genius who bestowed the precious gift of water upon man was adopted to this use in vulgar Latin under the form catamitus: in Rome the passive object of homosexual desire was a catamite. The Latin word is a corruption of Greek ganymedes but retains no strong mythological connotation in Latin: when Ovid sketches the myth briefly (Metamorphoses x:152-161), "Ganymedes" retains his familiar Greek name.
Prestigious history painting
Apart from famous portraits such as Madame Récamier by Jacques-Louis David and Mademoiselle Rivière by Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres, most of the works in the Red Rooms fall into the &lsquohistory painting&rsquo category, traditionally regarded in France as the most important and prestigious. The history in question can be modern (Napoleon&rsquos battles by Antoine Jean Gros), classical / mythological (Aurora and Cephalus by Pierre-Narcisse Guérin) or biblical ( The Flood , by Anne-Louis Girodet). Some artists opted for &lsquoexotic&rsquo subjects such as Delacroix&rsquos The Death of Sardanapalus , or, more unusually, recent events with a political impact: Théodore Géricault&rsquos The Raft of the Medusa.
Virtual tours Enjoy the Louvre at home! Online tours
Visit the museum rooms and galeries, admire the palace architecture and enjoy the views!
The Advent of the Artist
For its 5th edition, the Petite Galerie takes a closer look at the transition from the typically anonymous craftsman of the classical period to the artist of the Renaissance, featuring works by Delacroix, Rembrandt, Tintoret and more.
This third Petite Galerie exhibition focused on the connection between art and political power, from antiquity to the present day.
The Body in Movement
In its second season, the Petite Galerie explored one of the performing arts: dance. How did artists use different materials and techniques to represent movement?
Founding Myths: From Hercules to Darth Vader
The very first Petite Galerie exhibition looked into how illustrators, sculptors, painters, puppeteers, filmmakers, and musicians around the world have drawn inspiration from myths, given them form, and brought them to life.