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Map of Dvin Archaeological Site

Map of Dvin Archaeological Site


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Ararat (province)

Ararat ( [ ɑɾɑˈɾɑt ] , Armenian Արարատի մարզ , Ararati marz , "Ararat Province") is a province in the middle of Armenia with the provincial capital Artaschat . The province has an area of ​​2096 km² and a population of 246,880 (as of 2011). It is located east of Mount Ararat in Turkey and is named after him.

The name Ararat of the Old Testament referred to the Urartean Empire (from Assyrian Urartu ) and obviously corresponds to the ancient Armenian name Airarat for the Araxes level , which was used until the Middle Ages .

The province is bordered to the west by Turkey and to the south to Azerbaijan part of Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic . Kərki , the enclave of Nakhichevan captured by Armenia in 1992, is also in the province .

Other cities besides Artaschat are Ararat and the earlier urban-type settlements Masis and Wedi, which were elevated to cities in the 1990s . In addition to these three urban parishes, there are 93 rural parishes with a total of 95 villages the largest villages (each with over 4000 inhabitants) are Ajntap , Ararat (not far from the city of the same name, but independent), Awschar , Mchtschjan , Nor Charberd (also an urban-type settlement until the 1990s) and Wosketap (as of 2011).

The province was during the administrative reorganization within the framework of decentralization in 1995 from the 1930/37 since the Armenian SSR of the Soviet Union existing Rajons formed Ararat, Artashat and Massis and the rajonfreien towns Ararat and Artashat.


Contents

The city took its name from the Armenian fortress-city and pagan center of Ani-Kamakh located in the region of Daranaghi in Upper Armenia. [16] Ani was also previously known as khnamk (Խնամք), although historians are uncertain as to why it was called so. [16] Heinrich Hübschmann, a German philologist and linguist who studied the Armenian language, suggested that the word may have come from the Armenian word khnamel (wikt:խնամել), an infinitive which means "to take care of". [16] Ani was also the diminutive of the ancient goddess Anahit, who was seen as the mother protector of Armenia. [ citation needed ] One legend claims that the daughter of Aramazd, the supreme god of Armenian mythology, was called Anahit, which means “golden-haired” or “golden-handed.” But for some reason, every person who looked at her would exclaim: “Ani!”, which mean “that one” or “the most beautiful one” in Armenian, thus that became the most common name for her. [ citation needed ] The city of Ani was also considered one of the most beautiful cities in the Middle Ages. [ citation needed ]

According to the second edition of the Encyclopedia of Islam: "A suggestion has been made that the town may owe its name to a temple of the Iranian goddess Anāhita (the Greek Anaďtis)". [9]

The city is located on a triangular site, visually dramatic and naturally defensive, protected on its eastern side by the ravine of the Akhurian River and on its western side by the Bostanlar or Tzaghkotzadzor valley. [6] The Akhurian is a branch of the Araks River [6] and forms part of the currently closed border between Turkey and Armenia. The site is at an elevation of around 1,340 meters (4,400 ft). [7]

The site is located about 400 metres from the Turkey-Armenia border. Across the border is the Armenian village of Kharkov, part of Shirak Province.

Early history Edit

Armenian chroniclers such as Yeghishe and Ghazar Parpetsi first mentioned Ani in the 5th century. [16] They described it as a strong fortress built on a hilltop and a possession of the Armenian Kamsarakan dynasty. It was discovered September 17 1955 by archaeologist Mark Gioloany.

Bagratuni capital Edit

By the early 9th century, the former territories of the Kamsarakans in Arsharunik and Shirak (including Ani) had been incorporated into the territories of the Armenian Bagratuni dynasty. [21] Their leader, Ashot Msaker (Ashot the Meateater) (806–827) was given the title of ishkhan (prince) of Armenia by the Caliphate in 804. [22] The Bagratunis had their first capital at Bagaran, some 40 km south of Ani, before moving it to Shirakavan, some 25 km northeast of Ani, and then transferring it to Kars in the year 929. In 961, king Ashot III (953–77) transferred the capital from Kars to Ani. [7] Ani expanded rapidly during the reign of King Smbat II (977–89). In 992 the Armenian Catholicosate moved its seat to Ani. In the 10th century the population was perhaps 50,000–100,000. [23] By the start of the eleventh century the population of Ani was well over 100,000, [ citation needed ] and its renown was such that it was known as the "city of forty gates" and the "city of a thousand and one churches." Ani also became the site of the royal mausoleum of Bagratuni kings. [24]

Ani attained the peak of its power during the long reign of King Gagik I (989–1020). After his death his two sons quarreled over the succession. The eldest son, Hovhannes-Smbat (1020–41), gained control of Ani while his younger brother, Ashot IV (1020–40), controlled other parts of the Bagratuni kingdom. Hovhannes-Smbat, fearing that the Byzantine Empire would attack his now-weakened kingdom, made the Byzantine Emperor Basil II his heir. [25] When Hovhannes-Smbat died in 1041, Emperor Michael IV the Paphlagonian, claimed sovereignty over Ani. The new king of Ani, Gagik II (1042–45), opposed this and several Byzantine armies sent to capture Ani were repulsed. However, in 1046 Ani surrendered to the Byzantines, [7] after Gagik was invited to Constantinople and detained there, and at the instigation of pro-Byzantine elements among its population. A Byzantine governor was installed in the city. [16]

Cultural and economic center Edit

Ani did not lie along any previously important trade routes, but because of its size, power, and wealth it became an important trading hub. Its primary trading partners were the Byzantine Empire, the Persian Empire, the Arabs, as well as smaller nations in southern Russia and Central Asia. [16]

Gradual decline and abandonment Edit

In 1064, a large Seljuk army under Alp Arslan attacked Ani after a siege of 25 days, they captured the city and slaughtered its population. [6] An account of the sack and massacres in Ani is given by the Turkish historian Sibt ibn al-Jawzi, who quotes an eyewitness saying:

Putting the Persian sword to work, they spared no one. One could see there the grief and calamity of every age of human kind. For children were ravished from the embraces of their mothers and mercilessly hurled against rocks, while the mothers drenched them with tears and blood. The city became filled from one end to the other with bodies of the slain and [the bodies of the slain] became a road. [. ] The army entered the city, massacred its inhabitants, pillaged and burned it, leaving it in ruins and taking prisoner all those who remained alive. The dead bodies were so many that they blocked the streets one could not go anywhere without stepping over them. And the number of prisoners was not less than 50,000 souls. I was determined to enter city and see the destruction with my own eyes. I tried to find a street in which I would not have to walk over the corpses but that was impossible. [26]

In 1072, the Seljuks sold Ani to the Shaddadids, a Muslim Kurdish dynasty. [6] The Shaddadids generally pursued a conciliatory policy towards the city's overwhelmingly Armenian and Christian population and actually married several members of the Bagratid nobility. Whenever the Shaddadid governance became too intolerant, however, the population would appeal to the Christian Kingdom of Georgia for help. The Georgians captured Ani five times between 1124 and 1209: [7] in 1124, 1161, 1174, 1199, and 1209. [27] The first three times, it was recaptured by the Shaddadids. In the year 1199, Georgia's Queen Tamar captured Ani and in 1201 gave the governorship of the city to the generals Zakare and Ivane. [28] Zakare was succeeded by his son Shanshe (Shahnshah). Zakare's new dynasty — the Zakarids — considered themselves to be the successors to the Bagratids. Prosperity quickly returned to Ani its defences were strengthened and many new churches were constructed. The Mongols unsuccessfully besieged Ani in 1226, but in 1236 they captured and sacked the city, massacring large numbers of its population. Under the Mongols the Zakarids continued to rule Ani, as the vassals of the Georgian monarch. [29]

By the 14th century, the city was ruled by a succession of local Turkish dynasties, including the Jalayrids and the Kara Koyunlu (Black Sheep clan) who made Ani their capital. It was ruined by an earthquake in 1319. [6] [7] Tamerlane captured Ani in the 1380s. On his death the Kara Koyunlu regained control but transferred their capital to Yerevan. In 1441 the Armenian Catholicosate did the same. The Persian Safavids then ruled Ani until it became part of the Turkish Ottoman Empire in 1579. A small town remained within its walls at least until the middle of the seventeenth century, but the site was entirely abandoned by 1735 when the last monks left the monastery in the Virgin's Fortress or Kizkale.

Modern times Edit

In the first half of the 19th century, European travelers discovered Ani for the outside world, publishing their descriptions in academic journals and travel accounts. The private buildings were little more than heaps of stones but grand public buildings and the city's double wall were preserved and reckoned to present "many points of great architectural beauty". [6] Ohannes Kurkdjian produced stereoscopic image of Ani in the 2nd half of the 19th century.

In 1878, the Ottoman Empire's Kars region—including Ani—was incorporated into the Russian Empire's Transcaucasian region. [7] In 1892 the first archaeological excavations were conducted at Ani, sponsored by the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences and supervised by the Georgian archaeologist and orientalist Nicholas Marr (1864–1934). Marr's excavations at Ani resumed in 1904 and continued yearly until 1917. Large sectors of the city were professionally excavated, numerous buildings were uncovered and measured, the finds were studied and published in academic journals, guidebooks for the monuments and the museum were written, and the whole site was surveyed for the first time. [31] Emergency repairs were also undertaken on those buildings that were most at risk of collapse. A museum was established to house the tens of thousands of items found during the excavations. This museum was housed in two buildings: the Minuchihr mosque, and a purpose-built stone building. [32] Armenians from neighboring villages and towns also began to visit the city on a regular basis, [33] and there was even talk by Marr's team of building a school for educating the local Armenian children, building parks, and planting trees to beautify the site. [34]

In 1918, during the latter stages of World War I, the armies of the Ottoman Empire were fighting their way across the territory of the newly declared Republic of Armenia, capturing Kars in April 1918. At Ani, attempts were made to evacuate the artifacts contained in the museum as Turkish soldiers were approaching the site. About 6000 of the most portable items were removed by archaeologist Ashkharbek Kalantar, a participant of Marr's excavation campaigns. At the behest of Joseph Orbeli, the saved items were consolidated into a museum collection they are currently part of the collection of Yerevan's State Museum of Armenian History. [35] Everything that was left behind was later looted or destroyed. [36] Turkey's surrender at the end of World War I led to the restoration of Ani to Armenian control, but a resumed offensive against the Armenian Republic in 1920 resulted in Turkey's recapture of Ani. In 1921 the signing of the Treaty of Kars formalized the incorporation of the territory containing Ani into the Republic of Turkey. [37]

In May 1921, the government minister Rıza Nur ordered the commander of the Eastern Front, Kazım Karabekir, for the monuments of Ani to "be wiped off the face of the earth." [38] Karabekir records in his memoirs that he has vigorously rejected this command and it has never been carried out. [39] Some destruction did take place, including most of Marr's excavations and building repairs. [40] In October of the same year, a separate treaty was signed between Turkey and the RSFSR, confirming the border between Turkey and the soviet republic of Armenia as it is today. The Russian negotiator Ganeckij of this treaty tried to include Ani into the soviet republic of Armenia, but Karabekir did not agree. [41]

During the Cold War, Ani lay on the Turkish-Soviet border, a segment of the Iron Curtain. [42] In the 1950s Ani was part of the USSR's territorial claims on Turkey. In 1968 there were negotiations between the Soviet Union and Turkey, in which Ani will be transferred to Soviet Armenia in exchange for two Kurdish villages being transferred to Turkey, however nothing resulted from the talks. [43]

Today, according to Lonely Planet and Frommer's travel guides to Turkey:

Official permission to visit Ani is no longer needed. Just go to Ani and buy a ticket. If you don't have your own car, haggle with a taxi or minibus driver in Kars for the round-trip to Ani, perhaps sharing the cost with other travelers. If you have trouble, the Tourist Office may help. Plan to spend at least a half-day at Ani. It's not a bad idea to bring a picnic lunch and a water bottle. [44]

During the Cold War, and until 2004, a permit from the Turkish Ministry of Culture was required. At one point in the 1980s, photography was banned, as the site lay on the then Turkish-Soviet border. [45]

From the Armenian side of the border, in Shirak Province, an observation post has been set up near the village of Haykadzor, complete with an information panel, but the view is very poor. The outpost of Kharkov offers an excellent view, but access is restricted by border troops and Russian military personnel. [46] Permission to visit is granted at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Yerevan for free and takes one week.

According to The Economist, Armenians have "accused the Turks of neglecting the place in a spirit of chauvinism. The Turks retort that Ani's remains have been shaken by blasts from a quarry on the Armenian side of the border." [13]

Another commentator said: Ani is now a ghost city, uninhabited for over three centuries and marooned inside a Turkish military zone on Turkey's decaying closed border with the modern Republic of Armenia. Ani's recent history has been one of continuous and always increasing destruction. Neglect, earthquakes, cultural cleansing, vandalism, quarrying, amateurish restorations and excavations – all these and more have taken a heavy toll on Ani's monuments. [12]

In the estimation of the Landmarks Foundation (a non-profit organization established for the protection of sacred sites) this ancient city "needs to be protected regardless of whose jurisdiction it falls under. Earthquakes in 1319, 1832, and 1988, Army Target practice and general neglect all have had devastating effects on the architecture of the city. The city of Ani is a sacred place which needs ongoing protection. [47] "

Turkey's authorities now say they will do their best to conserve and develop the site and the culture ministry has listed Ani among the sites it is keenest to conserve. In the words of Mehmet Ufuk Erden, the local governor: "By restoring Ani, we'll make a contribution to humanity. We will start with one church and one mosque, and over time we will include every single monument." [13]

In an October 2010 report titled Saving Our Vanishing Heritage, Global Heritage Fund identified Ani as one of 12 worldwide sites most "On the Verge" of irreparable loss and destruction, citing insufficient management and looting as primary causes. [48] [49]

The World Monuments Fund (WMF) placed Ani on its 1996, 1998, and 2000 Watch Lists of 100 Most Endangered Sites. In May 2011, WMF announced it was beginning conservation work on the cathedral and Church of the Holy Redeemer in partnership with the Turkish Ministry of Culture. [50]

In March 2015, it was reported that Turkey will nominate Ani to be listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2016. [51] The archaeological site of Ani was inscribed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site on July 15, 2016. [52] According to art historian Heghnar Zeitlian Watenpaugh the addition "would secure significant benefits in protection, research expertise, and funding." [53]

All the structures at Ani are constructed using the local volcanic basalt, a sort of tufa stone. It is easily carved and comes in a variety of vibrant colors, from creamy yellow, to rose-red, to jet black. The most important surviving monuments are as follows.

The Cathedral Edit

Also known as Surp Asdvadzadzin (the Church of the Holy Mother of God), its construction was started in the year 989, under King Smbat II. Work was halted after his death, and was only finished in 1001 (or in 1010 under another reading of its building inscription). The design of the cathedral was the work of Trdat, the most celebrated architect of medieval Armenia. The cathedral is a domed basilica (the dome collapsed in 1319). The interior contains several progressive features (such as the use of pointed arches and clustered piers) that give to it the appearance of Gothic architecture (a style which the Ani cathedral predates by several centuries). [54]

Surp Stephanos Church Edit

There is no inscription giving the date of its construction, but an edict in Georgian is dated 1218. The church was referred to as "Georgian". During this period "Georgian" did not simply mean an ethnic Georgian, it had a denominational meaning and would have designated all those in Ani who professed the Chalcedonian faith, mostly Armenians. Although the Georgian Church controlled this church, its congregation would have mostly been Armenians. [55]

The church of St Gregory of Tigran Honents Edit

This church, finished in 1215, is the best-preserved monument at Ani. It was built during the rule of the Zakarids and was commissioned by the wealthy Armenian merchant Tigran Honents. [56] Its plan is of a type called a domed hall. In front of its entrance are the ruins of a narthex and a small chapel that are from a slightly later period. The exterior of the church is spectacularly decorated. Ornate stone carvings of real and imaginary animals fill the spandrels between blind arcade that runs around all four sides of the church. The interior contains an important and unique series of frescoes cycles that depict two main themes. In the eastern third of the church is depicted the Life of Saint Gregory the Illuminator, in the middle third of the church is depicted the Life of Christ. Such extensive fresco cycles are rare features in Armenian architecture – it is believed that these ones were executed by Georgian artists, and the cycle also includes scenes from the life of St. Nino, who converted the Georgians to Christianity. In the narthex and its chapel survive fragmentary frescoes that are more Byzantine in style. [57]

The church of the Holy Redeemer Edit

This church was completed shortly after the year 1035. It had a unique design: 19-sided externally, 8-apsed internally, with a huge central dome set upon a tall drum. It was built by Prince Ablgharib Pahlavid to house a fragment of the True Cross. The church was largely intact until 1955, when the entire eastern half collapsed during a storm. [58]

The church of St Gregory of the Abughamrents Edit

This small building probably dates from the late 10th century. It was built as a private chapel for the Pahlavuni family. Their mausoleum, built in 1040 and now reduced to its foundations, was constructed against the northern side of the church. The church has a centralised plan, with a dome over a drum, and the interior has six exedera. [59]

King Gagik's church of St Gregory Edit

Also known as the Gagikashen, this church was constructed between the years 1001 and 1005 and intended to be a recreation of the celebrated cathedral of Zvartnots at Vagharshapat. Nikolai Marr uncovered the foundations of this remarkable building in 1905 and 1906. Before that, all that was visible on the site was a huge earthen mound. The designer of the church was the architect Trdat. The church is known to have collapsed a relatively short time after its construction and houses were later constructed on top of its ruins. Trdat's design closely follows that of Zvartnotz in its size and in its plan (a quatrefoil core surrounded by a circular ambulatory). [60]

The Church of the Holy Apostles Edit

The date of its construction is not known, but the earliest dated inscription on its walls is from 1031. It was founded by the Pahlavuni family and was used by the archbishops of Ani (many of whom belonged to that dynasty). It has a plan of a type called an inscribed quatrefoil with corner chambers. Only fragments remain of the church, but a narthex with spectacular stonework, built against the south side of the church, is still partially intact. It dates from the early 13th century. A number of other halls, chapels, and shrines once surrounded this church: Nicholas Marr excavated their foundations in 1909, but they are now mostly destroyed. [61]

The mosque of Manuchihr Edit

The mosque is named after its presumed founder, Manuchihr, the first member of the Shaddadid dynasty that ruled Ani after 1072. The oldest surviving part of the mosque is its still intact minaret. It has the Arabic word Bismillah ("In the name of God") in Kufic lettering high on its northern face. The prayer hall, half of which survives, dates from a later period (the 12th or 13th century). In 1906 the mosque was partially repaired in order for it to house a public museum containing objects found during Nicholas Marr's excavations. Restoration of the mosque started in June 2020. [62]

The citadel Edit

At the southern end of Ani is a flat-topped hill once known as Midjnaberd (the Inner Fortress). It has its own defensive walls that date back to the period when the Kamsarakan dynasty ruled Ani (7th century AD). Nicholas Marr excavated the citadel hill in 1908 and 1909. He uncovered the extensive ruins of the palace of the Bagratid kings of Ani that occupied the highest part of the hill. Also inside the citadel are the visible ruins of three churches and several unidentified buildings. One of the churches, the "church of the palace" is the oldest surviving church in Ani, dating from the 6th or 7th century. Marr undertook emergency repairs to this church, but most of it has now collapsed – probably during an earthquake in 1966. [63]

The city walls Edit

A line of walls that encircled the entire city defended Ani. The most powerful defences were along the northern side of the city, the only part of the site not protected by rivers or ravines. Here the city was protected by a double line of walls, the much taller inner wall studded by numerous large and closely spaced semicircular towers. Contemporary chroniclers wrote that King Smbat (977–989) built these walls. Later rulers strengthened Smbat's walls by making them substantially higher and thicker, and by adding more towers. Armenian inscriptions from the 12th and 13th century show that private individuals paid for some of these newer towers. The northern walls had three gateways, known as the Lion Gate, the Kars Gate, and the Dvin Gate (also known as the Chequer-Board Gate because of a panel of red and black stone squares over its entrance). [64]

Other monuments Edit

There are many other minor monuments at Ani. These include a convent known as the Virgins' chapel a church used by Chalcedonian Armenians the remains of a single-arched bridge over the Arpa river the ruins of numerous oil-presses and several bath houses the remains of a second mosque with a collapsed minaret a palace that probably dates from the 13th century the foundations of several other palaces and smaller residences the recently excavated remains of several streets lined with shops etc.

Cave Village Edit

Directly outside of Ani, there was a settlement-zone carved into the cliffs. It may have served as "urban sprawl" when Ani grew too large for its city walls. Today, goats and sheep take advantage of the caves' cool interiors. One highlight of this part of Ani is a cave church with frescos on its surviving walls and ceiling.


PORTFOLIO

The Citadel Hill of Dvin. It was a 30-metre high tell located to the east of the Church city. The hill was terraced with a thick warren of civil buildings dwellings, workshops and administrative buildings. King Khosrau had his palace and fortress built in AD 335 in the middle of the Citadel Hill. The palace consisted of a two-storey building. The living quarters of the ruler were on the first floor. The ground floor included a kitchen and the rooms of the servants. The surrounding walls of the Citadel were reinforced by more than 40 round towers to guard the site. As a secondary defense. the citadel was secured on the outside by a 30-50 metre deep moat. The buildings of the Citadel were mostly built of baked clay brick and cobblestone. The larger buildings were built from limestone and multicolour tufa, like the palace. The Saint Gregory Cathedral of Dvin. In the foreground the eastern apse of the first cathedral, behind it the eastern apse of the shorter second cathedral. The Saint Gregory Cathedral. The first palace of the Catholicos, built in the 5th century to the southwest of the cathedral. It consisted of five adjoining rooms and a portico with four pairs of columns. The second palace of the Catholicos built in the 7th century near the northern side of the cathedral. The second palace of the Catholicos had a central hall of 11.4 × 26.7 metres and was surrounded on both sides by smaller rooms. Reconstruction drawings show a three-aisled pillared hall with four pillars in each row, supporting three square ceiling panels between them. Ancient stone capital with a fern-like relief from the erected in the second catholicos palace of Dvin. The foundations of the single-aisled church located to the north of the cathedral. Reconstruction drawing showing the walled church district. In the foreground the first cathedral, behind it the catholicos palace and to the right of it the single-nave church.

Map of Dvin Archaeological Site - History

DVIN, city in Armenia located at 40° N, 44° 41´ E, north of Artaxata on the left bank of the Azat (Garnīčāī), about 35 km south of the present Armenian capital at Yerevan. It remained a significant center from the Sasanian period to the 13th century, and its pleasant climate was mentioned by many authors (for maps, see Hewsen, 1987 idem, 1988a idem, 1988b idem, 1989).

In Old Armenian sources the name of the city is almost always given as Dowin (e.g., Faustus, pp. 29-30 tr. Garsoïan, p. 75 Pʿarpecʿi, p. 292 Sebêos, p. 67). Later authors (e.g., Samuel of Ani see Narratio, p. 141) wrote Dvin, which is the most common form in the scholarly literature. The assertion by Moses of Khorene (3.8) that the name means &ldquohill&rdquo in Persian resulted from his misunderstanding of Faustus (3.8). In fact no plausible Iranian etymology can be traced from a supposed *duwīn (D. N. MacKenzie, personal communication, 1991 cf. Minorsky, 1930, who suggested that the name was borrowed by the Arsacids from the Turkmen steppe, their original homeland). The reading ʾdḇyl for Dvin in &Scaronahrestānīhā-ī Ērān (cf. Nyberg, Manual II, p. 9) can no longer be accepted (cf. Gignoux, pp. 14-15). Procopius (2.25), Menander (p. 214 frag. 23.11), and Theophanes of Byzantium (apud Photius, p. 78 no. 64) wrote Doubios other forms of the name that occur in Greek texts are *Tibin (invariable cf. use in genitive and accusative in Narratio, pp. 39, 43), Tibion or Tibios (with genitive Tibiou in Cedrenus, II, pp. 558, 561), Tibi (Constantine Porphyrogenitus, De Adm. Imp. 44.4), and Tibēn (Narratio, p. 156). In Latin the name appears as Dubios (Ravennatis Anonymi Cosmographia, p. 23) in Syriac as ʾdbyn (cf. Thopdschian, p. 71), dwyn (Zacharias, 12.7), dʾwyn, and dwbyn (cf. Ghazarian, p. 209) in Arabic as Dabīl (the most frequent form cf. BGA IV, p. 61, s.v.) and occasionally Dawīn/Duwīn (Ebn Ḥawqal, tr. Kramers, pp. 339, 335). Yāqūt (Boldān, II, pp. 548, 632) included both forms under different lemmas, without recognizing that they referred to a single city (for other citations from Arabic sources, see Canard, p. 678).

Excavations by Soviet teams have shown that the beginnings of settlement on the site of Dvin can be traced back to the 3rd, possibly even the 4th millennium B.C.E. (Kafadaryan, 1966). It remains uncertain whether occupation was continuous. The excavations have yielded numerous finds from the Hellenistic period (Kocharyan). The hill at Dvin was, in the opinion of the excavators, enclosed within a defensive wall and inhabited in the time of the Armenian Arsacids (Kafadaryan, 1965, p. 284). Possibly in the first half of the 4th century C.E. (the dating is uncertain cf. Hewsen, 1978-79) the Armenian king Ḵosrow is supposed to have established a hunting park (OPers. paridaidā) there (Faustus, 3.8). The often expressed view that Ḵosrow had previously shifted the capital from Artaxata to Dvin is based on an unreliable report of Moses of Khorene (9th century), who relied on the much shorter text of Pseudo Faustus.

After the division of Armenia between Rome and Persia in 384 (?) Vałarshapat was in the Persian portion, of which it was the capital Dvin was also part of the Persian portion. When the Arsacid kingdom was abolished in Armenia in 428 Dvin became the capital (Arm. ostan cf. Hübschmann, p. 460) of Persian Armenia, from which the marzbān (Arm. marzpan) ruled. The palace and archives (dīvān see ARMENIA AND IRAN ii, p. 432) were located there. The earliest numismatic finds contain the portrait of the Sasanian king Bahrām V (420-38 Mushegyan, 1962, p. 57). According to the so-called Armenian Geography of Anania &Scaronirakacʿi, the ostan of Dvin extended as far as the canton of Ayrarat (Hübschmann, pp. 365-66). Probably in the second half of the 5th century (the date is controversial) it was also the seat of the Armenian patriarch (catholicus) and the center of the Armenian church, where a number of synods were convened (e.g., the first in 505 or 506, the second in 552, 554, or 555 at the latter the council of Chalcedon was condemned and the specifically Armenian calendar adopted other synods were held in 604? 607? 644? and 646?). As capital and economic and industrial center (particularly famed for &ldquopurple&rdquo carpets ii) Dvin became important in trade with Central Asia (cf. Procopius, De Bello Persico 2.25.3-4 Arakelyan and Martirosyan, pp. 44-46), which Artaxata had previously dominated. The reputation of the local manufactures was still known to authors of the Islamic period.

Sasanian efforts to impose the Zoroastrian religion in Armenia never ceased. The construction of a fire temple in Dvin led to a revolt in 571-72. The city was thenceforth often involved in the conflict between Byzantines and Sasanians (cf. Sebêos, p. 68). After the the Sasanian Ḵosrow II (590-628) ceded the larger portion of Persian Armenia to the Byzantines in 591 Dvin lay directly on the newly established border, though still within Persian territory (cf. Narratio, p. 237 cf., on the other hand, Hage, pp. 44-48 Hewsen, 1965, p. 336). In a campaign against the Sasanians the emperor Heraclius captured and destroyed the city in 623 (cf. Manandean, 1950, plan 1). The city was conquered by the Muslims on 17 &Scaronawwāl 19/6 October 640 and subsequently lost much of its importance. It subsequently became the seat (Arm. ostekan) of the caliph&rsquos governor and remained so until 173/789. In the 9th and 10th centuries it was caught up in the conflicts between the Armenian Bagratids and Arab amirs (for detailed references on the early Islamic period, see Canard) no ruler was able to dominate there for long. Early in the 10th century the residence of the catholicus was moved to Coravankʾ in Vaspurakan. Also in the 10th century the Byzantines reentered the history of Dvin. The city flourished again during the period when the Bagratid king Gagik I (990-1020) was semi-independent in Armenia and able to eliminate the rival amirates. Most of the archeological finds at the site are from the Bagratid period. Dvin remained a bone of contention between Kurdish and Deylamite amirs of Iranian origin after 1100 the city was briefly ruled by the Turks. A late flowering took place in the time of the Armenian Zakʿarids (after 1200) until the Mongol conquerors again destroyed the city, between 1233 and 1236, thus bringing about its definitive decline. Today there is only a small settlement on the site.

The site of Dvin has been continuously excavated since 1937, except for a period during World War II. The finds have been widely published, though certain conclusions must be treated with reserve, for example, the reconstruction of the temple that S. T. Eremyan believed was founded by Tiridates I (1st century C.E.) to honor his ancestors (p. 49). Also dubious is that of the &ldquogreat throne hall,&rdquo which has been identified as part of a palace building from the time of King Ḵosrow (330s Kafadaryan, 1966). Slightly more reliable is the schematic reconstruction of the palace of the Sasanian marzbān, possibly of the 5th century (debatable), as well as those of the palaces that were rebuilt after the earthquake of 893. The reconstructions of the palace of the catholicus of the second half of the 5th century, a church with a 6th-century nave (the &ldquomartyrium of Yazdbōzēd&rdquo cf. Kafadaryan, 1952, pp. 101-10 Figure 1), and the three-aisled cathedral church with porticoes on three sides of a courtyard, which was dedicated in the mid-5th century to Saint Gregory the Illuminator, deserve special attention. According to the reports of Armenian authors (e.g., Tʿomas Arcʿruni, 2.1), the last was supposed to have been built on the site of a Sasanian fire temple. After it was destroyed in the early 7th century it was rebuilt with fortifications (cf. Kafadaryan, 1952, pp. 111-22 for drawings, see Khatchatrian, pp. 11-13).

Bibliography: (For cited works not found in this bibliography and abbbreviations found here, see &ldquoShort References.&rdquo).

Primary Sources. Georgius Cedrenus, ed. I. Bekker, Corpus Scriptorum Historiae Byzantinae 33, II, Bonn, 1838.

Menander Protector, The History of Menander the Guardsman, ed. and tr. R. C. Blockley, Liverpool, 1985.

La Narratio de Rebus Armeniae, ed. G. Garitte, CSCO 132, Louvain, 1952 (with abundant material). Muqaddasī, p. 377.

Łazar Pʿarpecʿi, Patmutʿiwn Hayocʿ, ed. V. Mamikonian, rev. G. Ter-Mkrtchyani and S. Malkhasyancʿi, Yerevan, 1982 tr. R. W. Thomson as The History of Lazar Pʿarpecʿi, Atlanta, 1991.

Photius, Bibliotheca, ed. and tr. R. Henry as Bibliothèque I, Paris, 1959.

Ravennatis Anonymi Cosmographia &hellip, ed. J. Schnetz, Itineraria Romana 2, Stuttgart, 1940.

Sebêos, Patmutʿiwn i Herakln, ed. G. V. Abgaryan as Patmutʿiwn Sebêosi (History of Sebêos), Yerevan, 1979 tr. F. Macler as Histoire d&rsquoHéraclius par l&rsquoévêque Sebèos, Paris, 1904.

Zacharias Rhetor, Historia Eccle-siastica II, ed. F. W. Brooks, CSCO 84, Louvain, 1921 repr. Louvain, 1953.

Modern sources (most works in Armenian include Russian summaries). N. Adontz, Armenia v epokhy Yustiniana, tr. N. G. Garsoïan as Armenia in the Period of Justinian. The Political Conditions Based on the Naxarar System, Lisbon, 1970, esp. p. 435 n. 18.

B. A. Arakelyan and A. A. Martirosyan, &ldquoArkheologicheskoe izuchenie Armenii za gody sovetskoĭ vlasti&rdquo (Archeological studies of Armenia during the years of Soviet power), Sovetskaya Arkheologiya, 1967/4, pp. 26-47.

V. M. Aru-tyunyan, Arkhitekturnye pamyatniki Dvina V-VII vv. (Po materialam raskopok 1937-1939 gg.) (Architectural monuments of Dvin in the 6th-7th centuries [According to materials from the excavations of 1937-39]), Arkheologicheskie raskopki v Armenii (Archeological excavations in Armenia) 2, Yerevan, 1950 (in Armenian).

W. Baumgartner, &ldquoDubios,&rdquo in Pauly-Wissowa, V/2, p. 1751.

M. Canard, &ldquoDwin,&rdquo in EI ² II, 1965, pp. 678-81.

S. T. Eremyan, Armeniya po &ldquoAshkhartsuĭts"-u (Arm-yanskaya geografiya VII veka) (Armenia according to A&scaronxarcʿoycʿ [Armenian geography of the 7th century]), Yerevan, 1963 (in Armenian).

G. Garitte, &ldquoDocuments pour l&rsquoétude du livre d&rsquoAgathange,&rdquo Studi e Testi 127, 1946, pp. 210-11.

N. G. Garsoïan, &ldquoDwin,&rdquo in Dictionary of the Middle Ages IV, New York, 1984, pp. 323-25.

Idem, &ldquoThe Early-Medieval Armenian City. An Alien Element?&rdquo The Journal of the Ancient Near Eastern Society 16-17, 1984-85, pp. 67-83 repr. in Ancient Studies in Memory of Elias Bickerman, New York, 1987, pp. 67-83.

M. Ghazarian, &ldquoArmenien unter der arabischen Herrschaft bis zur Entstehung des Bagra-tidenreiches. Nach arab-ischen und armenischen Quellen bearbeitet, Zeitschrift für armenische Philologie 2, 1904, pp. 161-225.

P. Gignoux, &ldquoL&rsquoorganisation administrative sasanide. Le cas du marzbān,&rdquo Jerusalem Studies in Arabic and Islam 4, 1984, pp. 1-29.

R. Grousset, Histoire de l&rsquoArménie des origines à 1071, Paris, 1947.

W. Hage, &ldquoArmenien,&rdquo in Theologische Real-enzyklopädie IV, Berlin, 1979, pp. 40-57.

H. Hewsen, &ldquoArmenia According to the A&scaronxar-hacʿoycʿ,&rdquo Revue des Études Arméniennes 2, 1965, pp. 319-42.

Idem, &ldquoThe Sucessors of Tiridates the Great. A Contribution to the History of Armenia in the Fourth Century,&rdquo Revue des Études Arméniennes 13, 1978-79, pp. 99-123.

Idem, Armenia and Georgia. Christianity and Territorial Development from the 4th to the 7th Century, TAVO B VI/14, Wiesbaden, 1987.

Idem, Armenia and Georgia in the 10th and 11th Century, TAVO B VII/16, Wiesbaden, 1988a.

Idem, Armenia and Georgia circa 1200, TAVO B VII/17, Wiesbaden, 1988b.

Idem, Armenia and Georgia. Christianity in the Middle Ages (7th-17th Century), TAVO B VIII/4, Wiesbaden, 1989.

E. Honigmann, Die Ostgrenze des byzantinischen Reiches &hellip, Brussels, 1935.

H. Hübschmann, &ldquoDie altarmenischen Ortsnamen mit Beiträgen zur historischen Topographie Armeniens,&rdquo Indogermanische Forschungen 16, Strassburg, 1904 repr. Amster-dam, 1969, pp. 279, 365-66, 422.

Ł. Inčičean, Storagrutʿiwn hin Hayastaneayc&rsquo, Venice, 1822, pp. 462-69.

V. Inglisian, &ldquoChalkedon und die armenische Kirche,&rdquo in A. Grillmeier and H. Bacht, eds., Das Konzil von Chalkedon II, Würzburg, 1953, esp. pp. 361-83. K.

G. Kafadaryan, Gorod Dvin i ego raskopki (The city of Dvin and its excavations), Yerevan, 1952 (in Armenian) French summary H. Berbérian in Revue des Études Arméniennes 2, 1965, pp. 459-60 Russian summary tr. H. Berbérian as &ldquoLes fouilles de la ville de Dvin (Duin),&rdquo Revue des Études Arméniennes 2, 1965, pp. 283-301.

Idem, &ldquoO vremeni osnovaniya goroda Dvina i o yazycheskom khrame na vyshgorode&rdquo (On the period of the foundation of the city of Dvin and on the pagan temple in the upper city), Patma-banasirakan Handes, 1966/2, pp. 41-58 (in Armenian).

Idem, Gorod Dvin i ego raskopki II. Rezul&rsquotaty rabot arkheologicheskoĭ eµkspeditsii AN ArmSSSR 1951-1972 godov (The city of Dvin and its excavations II. Results of the work of the archeological expedition of the Academy of Sciences, Armenian S.S.R.), Yerevan, 1982 (in Armenian).

A. A. Kalantaryan, &ldquoRaskopki tsentral&rsquonogo kvartala gor. Dvina (1964-65 gg.)&rdquo (Excavations in the central quarter of the city of Dvin [1964-65]), Patma-banasirakan Handes, 1967/1, pp. 214-21.

Idem, Material&rsquonaya kul&rsquotura Dvina V-VIII vv. (The material culture of Dvin, 5th-8th centuries), Arkheologicheskie pamyatniki Armenii (Archeological monuments of Armenia) 5/1, Yerevan, 1970 (in Armenian, with English summary).

Idem, Rannesrednevekovye bully Dvina (Early medieval bullae from Dvin), Arkheo-logicheskie pamyatniki Armenii (Archeological monuments of Armenia) 15, Yerevan, 1981 (in Armenian).

A. Khatchatrian, L&rsquoarchitecture arménienne du IVe au VIe siècle, Paris, 1971a, pp. 53-58, 61-65 figs. 67-74.

Idem, &ldquoDvin,&rdquo in Reallexikon zur byzantinischen Kunst II, Stuttgart, 1971b, pp. 9-22.

G. Kocharyan, &ldquoKeramika Dvina ellinisticheskoĭ epokhi&rdquo (Ceramics from Dvin in the Hellenistic period), Lraber, 1974/5, pp. 82-97 (in Armenian).

G. A. Koshelenko, ed., Arkheo-logiya SSSR. Drevneĭ gosudarstva Kavkaza i Sredneĭ Azii (The archeology of the U.S.S.R. The ancient states of the Caucasus and Central Asia), Moscow, 1985.

K. Kh. Kushnareva, Drevneĭshie pamyatniki Dvina (Ancient monuments of Dvin), Yerevan, 1977.

H. A. Manandean (Ya. A. Manandyan), &ldquoLes invasions arabes en Arménie (notes chronologiques),&rdquo Byzantion 18, 1948, pp. 163-95.

Idem, &ldquoMarshruty persidskikh pokhodov imperatora Irakliya&rdquo (The lines of march of the Persian campaign of the emperor Heraclius), Vizantiĭskiĭ Vremmenik 3, 1950, pp. 133-53.

Idem, O torgovle i gorodakhArmenii v svyazi s mirovoĭ torgovleĭ drevnikh vremen, 2nd ed., Yerevan, 1954 tr. N. G. Garsoian as The Trade and Cities of Armenia in Relation to Ancient World Trade, Lisbon, 1965.

Markwart, Ērān&scaronahr, p. 122. Idem, Südarmenien und die Tigrisquellen nach griech-ischen und arabischen Geographen, 1930, esp. pp. 562-70.

J. Mécérian, &ldquoHistoire et institutions de l&rsquoéglise arménienne,&rdquo Recherches de l&rsquoInstitut de Lettres Orientales de Beyrouth 30, 1965, pp. 59-115.

V. Minorsky, &ldquoLe nom de Dvin en Arménie,&rdquo Revue des Études Arméniennes 10, 1930, pp. 117-23 repr. in V. Minorsky, Iranica. Twenty Articles, Tehran, 1964, pp. 1-11.

Idem, Studies in Caucasian History, London, 1953, esp. pp. 104-07, 116-24.

Idem, &ldquoTranscaucasica. Le nom de Dvin,&rdquo JA 217, 1930, pp. 41-56.

Kh. A. Mushegyan (Mu&scaronhełyan), Denezhnoe obrashchenie Dvina po numizmaticheskim dannym (Monetary circulation at Dvin, according to the numismatic data), Yerevan, 1962 French summary H. Berbérian, Revue des Études Arméniennes 2, 1965, pp. 464-68.

Idem, &ldquoBilan comparé des découvertes numismatiques à Ani et à Duin,&rdquo Revue des Études Arméniennes 18, 1984, pp. 461-69.

H. S. Nyberg, &ldquoDie sassanidische Westgrenze und ihre Verteidigung,&rdquo in Septen-trionalia et Orientalia. Studia Bernhardo Karlgren &hellip, Kungl. Vitterhets Historie och Antikvitets Akademiens Handlingar 91, Stockholm, 1959, pp. 319-26.

M. d&rsquoOnofrio, The Churches of Dvin, Rome, 1973.

Idem, &ldquoCertains palais résidentiels de l&rsquoArménie du Ve au VIIe siècle après J.-C.,&rdquo Reports of the Second International Symposium on Armenian Art II, Yerevan, 1981, pp. 90-110.

J. Sturm, &ldquoPersarmenia,&rdquo in Pauly-Wissowa, XIX/1, pp. 932-38.

A. Ter-Ghewondyan, in &ldquoIzvestiya Akad. Nauk Arm. S.S.R. [Tełekagir], 1956/12, pp. 81-89 tr. as &ldquoDuin (Dvine) sous les Salarides,&rdquo Revue des Études Arméniennes, N.S. 1, 1964, pp. 233-42.

Idem, in Izvestiya Akad. Nauk Armyansk S.S.R. [Tełekagir], 1957/10, pp. 85-98 tr. as &ldquoChronologie de la ville de Dvin (Duin) aux 9e et 11e siècles,&rdquo Revue des Études Arméniennes, N.S. 2, 1965, pp. 303-18.

Idem, Arabakan Amir-ayutʿyunneṟe bagratunyacʿ haystanum, Yerevan, 1967 tr. N. Garsoïan as The Arab Emirates in Bagratid Armenia, Lisbon, 1976.

Idem, Armeniya i arabskiĭ khalifat (Armenia and the Arab caliphate), Yerevan, 1977.

E. Ter-Minassiantz, Die armenische Kirche in ihren Beziehungen zu den syrischen Kirchen bis zum Ende des 13. Jahr-hunderts nach den armenischen und syrischen Quellen bearbeitet, Leipzig, 1904.

H. Thopdschian, &ldquoArmenien vor und während der Araberzeit,&rdquo Zeitschrift für armenische Philologie 2, 1904, pp. 50-71.

N. M. Tokarskiĭ, Arkhitektura Armenii IV-XIV vv. (The architecture of Armenia, 4th-14th centuries), Yerevan, 1961, pp. 52-61, 88-90, 101-04, 262-68 review A. Khatchatrian, Revue des Études Arméniennes 2, 1965, pp. 222-38 3, 1966, pp. 119-41.


Talamanca Range-La Amistad Reserves

Site visited during Panama &ndash Costa Rica trip (November, 2017) &ndash since Els carefully described Costa Rican part of this serial heritage I will focus on Panamanian side. Technically, this National Park in Panama is divided in two sections: Las Nubes (in the south of Talamanca Range, Chiriquí Province) and Wekso (northern part, Bocas del Toro Province, more interesting, but far more difficult to get).

As I was travelling from Coiba National Park by public transport I went only to Las Nubes. It is possible to get from Santa Catalina (main access village for Coiba snorkeling activities) to Cerro Punta (central village around Talamanca Range) within one day. The journey requires 3 different buses and some luck. From Santa Catalina you should take first bus to Santiago de Varaguas, than change to the one for David, and change again there for the final trip to Cerro Punta (via Volcan). With a bit of luck you should arrive late in the afternoon to Cerro Punta


Dvin, the ancient capitol of Armenia

Dvin was one of the most ancient settlements of the Armenian Highland and an ancient capital of Armenia, traced back as far as the 3rd millennium BC. During the excavations of 1958, a settlement of Late Bronze and Early Iron age period was discovered under the citadel of Dvin.

Excavations revealed ancient workshops and worship structures from the beginning of the 1st millennium BC, with a metal workshop and four sanctuaries. The latter were large structures that had stone bases and walls made of unburnished clay. Flat roofs rested on wooden columns. Astonishing altar stelae of complex compositions, with traces of “eternal” fire and mostly black-polished utensils used at ceremonies were placed inside these sanctuaries built in the architectural traditions of Pre-Urartian (Araratian) dwellings.

In the first half of the 8th century BC, Dvin and numerous settlements of the Ararat Valley were ruined due to invasions. Traces of a great fire and ruins that took place in this period are clearly seen from excavations in Dvin. According to UNESCO Dvin was also the sight of a 6th century B.C. fortress.

Fragment from the documentary “Andin. Armenian Journey Chronicles” directed by Ruben Giney.

Drawing of the central square of the ancient Armenian capital city of Dvin. The main cathedral of S. Grigor (3rd-5th century), with a small church of S. Sarkis to the right (6th century), and the residence of the Catholicos on the left (5th century).

From the first half of the 4th century, Dvin was the primary residence of the Armenian Kings of Arshakuny dynasty and the Holy See of the Armenian Church. King Khosrov II built a palace (in 335 AD.) on the site of an ancient settlement making Dvin the capital of Armenia and subsequently the seat of the Catholicos. The city grew rapidly reaching a population of over 100.000.

Dvin prospered as one of the most populous and wealthiest cities east of Constantinople. Dvin quickly turned into a regional economic center, a meeting-point of trade routs from east and west. Six trade routes started from Dvin, which connected the city with Iran, Iraq, Assyria, the Byzantine Empire and countries of the Mediterranean basin. Goods manufactured in the renowned workshops of these countries were imported into Dvin. Production of the craftsmen of Dvin (pottery and textiles) was exported far beyond the borders of the country. It was the center of craftsmanship and transit commerce. In the central district of the city the Armenian Patriarch’s residence was situated with its churches and patriarchate. The city was situated on a hill, on top of which stood the old Citadel and the adjacent buildings. The city had defensive walls formed of two layers, and a temple tower.

Ruins of Dvin ancient settlement

After the fall of Arshakuny dynasty, Dvin still remained the largest city of Armenia. At the end of 7th century, as a result of Arab invasions, Dvin and most of Armenia came under the power of the Arab Caliphate. The Arabs formed an administrative unit of Armenia, whose center was Dvin. From the beginning of the 8th century, during the Arab rule, Dvin was again a prosperous free-trade city of crafts and goods. Armenian and foreign written sources call Dvin the “Great Capital”. Despite the fact that Dvin was a battleground between Arabs and Byzantine forces for the next two centuries, in the 9th century, it was still a flourishing city.

In 1236 Dvin was invaded by Tatar Mongols. Though It was destroyed and robbed, it managed to survive one more century. The last time the city of Dvin had been mentioned was in one of the Georgian chronicles along with other ruined cities. At the site of the ruined city several small villages were built which have survived until present days.

Dvin was the birthplace of Najm ad-Din Ayyub and Asad ad-Din Shirkuh bin Shadhi, Kurdish generals in the service of the Seljuks Najm ad-Din Ayyub’s son, Saladin, was the founder of the Ayyubid dynasty of Egypt. Saladin was born in Tikrit, Iraq, but his family had originated from the ancient city of Dvin.

The archaeological sites at Dvin are inscribed in UNESCO. Numerous wonderful artifact uncovered at the sight attest to the high level of craftsmanship practiced by the ancient inhabitants of Dvin.


Contents

According to Movses Khorenatsi, the area of Vagharshapat was known as Artimed (Արտիմէդ), derived from the ancient Greek deity Artemis. Later, it was renamed Avan Vardgesi (Աւան Վարդգէսի, "Town of Vardges") or Vardgesavan (Վարդգէսաւան) by Prince Vardges Manouk who rebuilt the settlement near the shores of Kasagh River, during the reign of King Orontes I Sakavakyats of Armenia (570–560 BC). However, in his first book, Wars of Justinian, the Byzantine historian Procopius refers to the city as Valashabad (Balashabad), named after King Valash (Balash) of Armenia. The name evolved into its later form by the shift of the medial l into a gh, which is common in the Armenian language. Movses Khorenatsi mentioned that the town of Vardges was entirely rebuilt and fenced by King Vagharsh I to become known as Norakaghak (Նորաքաղաք, "New City") and later Vagharshapat.

Early history Edit

The territory of ancient Vagharshapat was inhabited since the 3rd millennium BC. Many sites, such as Metsamor Castle, Shresh hill and Mokhrablur hill date back to the neolithic period. The first written records about Vagharshapat were found in the inscriptions left by the Urartian king Rusa II (685–645 BC), where it was mentioned as Kuarlini (Կուարլինի). The inscription found in the archaeological site of ancient Vagharshapat cites to a water canal opened by king Rusa II, between Ildaruni river (Hrazdan River) and the valley of Kuarlini.

According to 5th-century writer Movses Khorenatsi, the oldest name of Vagharshapat was Artimed (Արտիմէդ), derived from the ancient Greek deity Artemis. Later, it was renamed Avan Vardgesi (Աւան Վարդգէսի, "Town of Vardges") or Vardgesavan (Վարդգէսաւան) after being rebuilt by prince Vardges Manouk near the shores of Kasagh River, during the reign of king Orontes I Sakavakyats of Armenia (570–560 BC).

Under the reign of king Tigranes the Great (95–55 BC), the town was partly inhabited by Jewish captives.

In the first half of the 1st century AD, under the reign of the Armenian Arsacid king Vagharsh I of Armenia (117–144), the old town of Vardgesavan was renovated and renamed Vagharshapat (Վաղարշապատ). In his first book Wars of Justinian, the Byzantine historian Procopius has cited to the city as Valashabad (Balashabad), named after king Valash (Balash) of Armenia. The name evolved into its later form by the shift in the medial L into a Gh, which is common in the Armenian language. Movses Khorenatsi mentioned that the Town of Vardges was entirely rebuilt and fenced by king Vagharsh I to become known as Noarakaghak (Նորաքաղաք, "New City") and later Vagharshapat.

Vagharshapat has served as the capital of the Arsacid Kingdom of Armenia between 120 AD and 330 AD. After embracing Christianity as a state religion in Armenia in 301, Vagharshapat was gradually called Ejmiatsin (Armenian: Էջմիածին ), after the name of the Mother Cathedral the seat of the Armenian Catholicosate, which is considered as one of the oldest religious organizations in the world. As a spiritual centre of the entire Armenian nation, Vagharshapat has grown up rapidly and developed as an important centre of education and culture. The city was home to one of the oldest educational institutions in Armenia founded by Mesrop Mashtots.

The political capital of the Armenian kingdom was transferred to the city of Dvin in 336.

Middle Ages Edit

Vagharshapat maintained its status as the country's most important city until the fall of the Arsacid Kingdom in 428. The city has gradually lost its importance under the Persian rule, specifically when the seat of the Catholicosate was transferred to Dvin in 452. However, the first manuscript library in Armenia was founded in 480 in Vagharshapat.

The Armenian Church rejected the Council of Chalcedon (451) because they believed the Chalcedonian christology was too similar to Nestorianism however, some Armenian bishops who were present in the territories of Roman Armenia signed the Council's documents and also accepted Pope Leo I's 458 encyclical mandating adherence to the Chalcedonian Definition. In Persarmenia, the Persian Nestorian Church supported the spread of Nestorianism, which the Armenian Church had previously declared heretical and saw as a threat to the independence of their Church. Peter the Iberian, a Georgian prince, also strongly opposed the Chalcedonian Creed. [11] Thus, in 491, Catholicos Babken I of Armenia, along with the Albanian and Iberian bishops met in Vagharshapat and issued a condemnation of the Chalcedonian Definition. [12]

In 587 during the reign of emperor Maurice, Vagharshapat (then called Valarshapat) and much of Armenia came under Roman administration after the Romans defeated the Sassanid Persian Empire at the battle of the Blarathon.

In 658 AD, Vagharshapat, along with the rest of the Armenian highland, was conquered by the Arabs. The city was briefly revived between the 9th and 11th centuries under the Bagratid Kingdom of Armenia, before being overrun by the Byzantines in 1045 and later by the Seljuks in 1064.

In the middle of the 13th century, Vagharshapat became part of the Ilkhanate of the Mongol Empire. During the last quarter of the 14th century the Aq Qoyunlu Sunni Oghuz Turkic tribe took over Armenia, including Vagharshapat.

In 1400, when Timur invaded Armenia and Georgia many districts including Vagharshapat were depopulated under the rule of the Timurid Empire. [13] [ self-published source? ] In 1410, Armenia fell under the control of the Kara Koyunlu Shia Oghuz Turkic tribe. Under the Turkic-Mongol rule, Vagharshapat was known to the Turks as Uchkilisa (Üçkilise, "three churches" in Turkic).


Archaeological Excavations

ANI
was one of the capitals of medieval Armenia. It is located on a high triangular rocky plateau, on the right bank of the Akhurian river, in the historic province of Shirak (now in Turkey).

In Armenian literature, Ani was first mentioned as a fortress in the 5th century. The Bagratids proclaimed Ani the capital of Armenia in 961.

In its prime, the 9th-13th centuries, Ani became the most important city in Armenia, where city-building and construction, arts, crafts and trade, science and culture reached an unprecedented development. The excavations of the city revealed the remains of majestic secular and worship structures and numerous examples of material culture. From the end of the 19th century to 1917, an expedition guided by outstanding expert in Oriental studies N. Marr, with the participation of famous Armenian scholars T. Toramanian, H. Orbeli and others, carried out excavations in Ani.

Part of the collection rescued from the World War I and photographs of the monuments have fortunately been preserved and are now kept at the Museum.

ARATASHEN
settlement (6th-5th millennia BC) is a Neolithic-Chalcolithic habitation. It is situated 5 km south-west of Echmiadzin, on the bank of the Kasagh river. A large number of tools made of obsidian, stone, bone and everyday objects were found during the excavations. Knife-like blades and diverse axes of obsidian and pyramid-shaped nucleuses comprise an important group. Aratashen with its exceptional findings is of utmost importance for the periodization and study of the Neoithic-Chalcolithic culture in Armenia.


ARMAVIR,
the archeological site, is located in the Ararat valley, on the left bank of the Arax river. It was a large economic, cultural and worship centre. Greek geographer Ptolemy (90-168) mentions it as a city. Movses Khorenatsi attributes the foundation of Armavir to Aramayis, the grandson of Hayk Nahapet (Forefather Hayk). It was Armenia’s capital under the Yervandids until the end of the 4th century BC. The Citadel of Armavir was built at the height of 76 m, and city quarters spread around it

The Citadel walls and main walls of buildings, Hellenestic period pottery – flasks, cups, phials, karas-vessels, glass vessels, weapons, ornaments and other objects, were discovered during excavations.

Armavir was excavated from 1962 under the guidance of B. Arakelian and G. Tiratsian.


ARTASHAT
was the capital of Armenia in 180 BC-339 AD. It is situated on the bank of the Arax river, on the hills in the environs of Khorvirap. The territory had been inhabited since the mid-5th millennium BC. The city was built under king Artashes I (180 BC) and was a crossroads of international trade in the Ancient World. In its prime period, it occupied a territory of 3,000 hectares and had 150,000 inhabitants. Armenian and foreign historians spoke of Artashat in admiration.

The excavations confirm that the city was walled and had a flexible defence system. It had a palace-administrative, worship, craftsmen’s and other quarters. The objects excavated from Artashat represent marble, terracotta and alabaster statues of gods, unique coins, seals and stamps that confirm the relations with different countries, art pieces, locally produced and imported pottery, glass vessels, weapons, ornaments of precious metals, architectural fragments and various objects of everyday use.

Excavations started in the 1970s under the guidance of B. Arakelian and Z. Khachatrian, and have continued until present.


ARTIK
burial mounds (15th-9th centuries BC) are located in the tufa quarries between the town of Artik and the village of Harich. About 640 Late Bronze Age and Early Iron Age tombs of catacomb burials with rich archeological materials were excavated in the burial mounds. The collection comprises various clay vessels, bronze weapons, ornaments, statuettes of birds and chamois, seals, adornments of semi-precious stones and other objects. The materials discovered during Artik excavations are kept in the archeological funds of the Museum.

The monument has been excavated since 1960 under the guidance of T. Khachatrian.


DVIN
is a multi-layered monument 30 km south of Yerevan, in Artashat sub-region of the Ararat province. With the villages of Aygestan, Nerkin Dvin, Hnaberd and others, the monument occupies a territory of 400 hectares and has been inhabited continously since the 3rd millennium BC. It was the capital of Armenia from the 330s to 885, and the See of the Armenian church in 484-931. Dvin was destroyed in the 13th century during the Seljuk and Mongol invasions.

In the centre of the monument is the citadel of the medieval city with mighty walls and more than 40 semi-circular towers, around which large business and dwelling quarters stretched. A partial study of Dvin was carried out as far back as the second half of the 19th century. Owing to systematic excavations that started in 1936 and continued until present, citadel and residential areas from different periods, architectural structures of secular and worship nature, production complexes were unearthed, the city’s chronological picture was outlined, borders were identified and the life and daily routine of different layers of the society were studied.

Numerous examples of craftsmanship were discovered - ritual vessels, altar-pieces, sculptures from the 3rd-1st millennia BC, objects of applied arts from the Hellenistic period, decorated clay and faïence vessels of medieval local production and import, samples of glassware and metalware, ornaments, coins and other objects.


EREBUNI
is an Urartian fortress-city of the 8th-7th centuries BC. It was the seat of the Achaemenid governor in the 6th-5th centuries BC. It is located in the south-eastern part of the city of Yerevan. The fortress was founded in 782 by king Argishti. The name of the capital Yerevan comes from Erebuni. Cuneiform inscriptions enable us to follow the whole course of the city’s history. The Citadel was built on the hill of Arin-Berd and is enclosed into mighty walls. The excavations unearthed palace buildings, halls, temple complexes, military barracks, industrial and economic buildings. The basalt stone with a cuneiform inscription about the foundation of the fortress discovered in Erebuni, fragments of frescoes from the palace, seals, stone cups and diverse clay objects are kept in the Museum.


GARNI,
the archeological monument, is situated on the right bank of the Azat river, including the village of Garni and its environs. It was continuously inhabited from the 3rd millennium BC until the Late Middle Ages. It is called the Land of Guiarniani in the Urartian cuneiform inscriptions. The fortress of Garni is thought to have been founded in the 2nd century BC, and the Temple devoted to Mihr – in the 1st century AD. Garni was a military post and a royal summer residence. The Early Bronze Age settlement, Middle and Late Bronze Age and Hellenistic tombs, as well as the fortress with Hellenistic and medieval structures were excavated. The discovered findings present the products of pottery, jewellery, metalware and glassware, coins and the art of building.

HARICH
is a multi-layered monument of the 26th century BC- 10th century AD on the southern part of the village of Harich in Shirak. It is located on the slopes of Aragats Mountain on a high tufa plateau surrounded by deep gorges on the three sides. The Bronze Age settlement with its three terraces stretches from the west to the east and occupies 12 hectares of land. The terraces are separated from each other by Cyclopian walls. A burial mound of 3 square kilometers is located near the settlement. In the Early Bronze Age layer of the monument, dwelling houses, square in plan, with fireplaces made of stone and movable hearths decorated with anthropomorphic figures, were unearthed. Ritual clay statuettes of animals and people, black-polished pottery, metal-casting objects, tools to cultivate wheat, bronze ornaments and other objects were found here.


KARASHAMB
burial mound (22nd-21st centuries BC) is a Mid-Bronze Age monument. It is situated in the mid-stream of the Hrazdan river, near the village of Karashamb. The burial mound
(diameter – 30 m, height – 1.5 m) belonged to a chief. Ornaments made of precious metals and bronze, weapons, symbols of power, utensils and clay objects were discovered there. Of exceptional scientific and cultural interest in the collection is the silver inlaid goblet, whose belts sculptured with narrative scenes contain great information for the study of the spiritual and material culture of Armenia of the Middle Bronze Age. It was excavated in 1987 under the guidance of V. Hovhannisian.


KARMIR BLUR
with the Urartian fortress-city of Teishebaini of the 7th-6th centuries BC is located in the south-eastern part of the city of Yerevan, on the left bank of the Hrazdan river. It was built under Rusa II (685-640 BC), and treasures of the Erebuni fortress were transferred there. There was a vast settlement of the Early Bronze Age on the territory of the city. The Citadel of Teishebaini was built on a hill and was surrounded with walls. The excavations unearthed pre-Urartian, 13th-9th century BC residential quarters, Urartian palace buildings, halls, temple complexes, military barracks, industrial and economic structures. Cuneiform clay tablets with business correspondence, inscriptions about construction work, seals and highly artistic specimens of sculpture, jewellery, armoury, decorative-applied arts and pottery are kept in the Museum.


KARNUT
settlement (4th-3rd millennia BC) is an Early Bronze Age monument. It is situated on a hill, near the village of Karnut in Shirak. Dwelling and worship structures were opened during excavations. Among the objects found at Karnut, of importance are black-polished ritual karas-vessels with ornamentation in reliefs and concavities, movable hearths with anthropomorphic figures and other samples that are unique findings of Early Bronze Age pottery in Armenia.

The monument of topographic characteristics comes close to the Early Bronze Age monument of Harich.


LCHASHEN,
the archeological site, is located on the banks of Lake Sevan, near the village of Lchashen. The site includes monument complexes of the 3rd-1st millennia BC – a Cyclopian fortress, habitations, the cuneiform inscription of king Arguishti I on a lakeside cliff, etc. On the land formerly covered by the waters of Lake Sevan, burial mounds, tombs, cromlechs and stone-box burials of all Bronze Age stages were excavated. The Lchashen collection is of diverse nature: it includes unique wooden four-wheeled and two-wheeled carts, bronze sculptural groups representing hunting scenes, statuettes of birds and animals, weapons with artistic decoration and symbols of power. Original pieces of art are various objects of worship, ritual and everyday use, ornaments of precious metals and stones, coloured and engraved pottery.


LORI-BERD,
the archeological site, is a monument of the 22nd-6th centuries BC, with several archeological and cultural layers. The settlement and the burial mounds embrace a part of the town of Stepanavan and the entire village of Lori-Berd.

Various objects of material culture acquired from the mounds represent objects of adornment made of precious metals and semi-precious stones, bronze weapons, ornaments, tools, highly artistic statuettes, utensils, diverse clay vessels and other objects.

The monument has been excavated since 1969 under the guidance of S. Devedjian.


MOKHRABLUR
settlement (4th-3rd millennia BC) is an Early Bronze Age monument with numerous constructive horizons. It is situated 4 km south of Echmiadzin, on an artificial hillside, and embraces about 3.5 hectares of land.

Numerous ornamented clay vessels, anthropomorphic and zoomorphic clay statuettes, tools and other objects were discovered at the monument. These materials have a great significance for the study of the Early Bronze Age plain and valley culture. One of the oldest monumental temples with an enormous altar was discovered in this settlement.

The first investigatory excavations in this settlement started in 1935 under the guidance of E. Bayburdian. In 1970-1985, the archeological expedition of the Armenological Centre at Yerevan State University carried out systematic excavations under the guidance of G. Areshian.


OSHAKAN,
the archeological site, is located on the bank of the Kasagh river, 5 km from the town of Ashtarak. The village is rich in archeological monuments of the 3rd-1st millennia BC. On the hill called “Didi-Kond”, ruins of an Urartian fortress (7th-6th centuries BC) with a citadel, palace and temple complexes were excavated. Burial mounds of the 11th-2nd centuries with Early Iron Age, Urartian and Antique tombs are scattered around the fortress and on the slopes of the hill. The Oshakan collection kept in the Museum is represented by a bronze statuette of a lion, original examples of coloured pottery, stone idols devoted to the worship of ancestors, various ornaments, tools and other objects.

SHENGAVIT
settlement (4th-3rd millennia BC), an Early Bronze Age monument, is situated on a hill on the right bank of Yerevan Lake. It occupies a territory of more than 6 hectares and is surrounded by mighty Cyclopian walls with towers and an underground path.

The settlement has four cultural layers, the lowest of which is of Chalcolithic period. Round habitations and adjoining square multi-dwelling structures were excavated in the three early Christian layers. Ritual hearths, household pits, sumptuous karas vessels filled with wheat, moulds for metal-casting, tools, diverse clay vessels and other objects were discovered in the centre of round habitations.

The Shengavit burial mounds were opened outside the wall, to the south-east and south-west of the settlement. Oldest examples of jewellery were found in these burial mounds.

The excavations of Shengavit started in 1936 under the guidance of E. Bayburdian and continue until present.

The monument is a classical example of the Kuro-Arax culture in specialized literature, it is also known under the name of “Shengavit” culture.

VANADZOR
burial mound (17th-16th centuries BC) is an important monument of the Middle Bronze Age in Armenia. The burial mound covers 30 square metres and is 3 m deep. It had a log-covered on-ground segment. Some of the significant objects excavated there include jewellery examples (vessels, ornaments), bronze weapons, tools and ornamented clay vessels. One of the unique examples of the art of jewellery of Armenia in the Middle Bornze Age, the gold goblet chased with the images of lions, stands out among the findings. The burial mound was excavated in 1948 under the guidance of B. Piotrovsky.


WHISHLIST UNESCO TENTIVE SITES

Algeria (6 TWHS)
Les Mausolées Royaux de Numidie, de la Maurétanie et les monuments funéraires pré-islamiques (1)
Les oasis ŕ foggaras et les ksour du Grand Erg Occidental (1)
Nedroma et les Trara (0)
Oued souf (1)
Parc des Aurčs avec les établissements oasiens des gorges du Rhoufi et d’El Kantara (0)
Sites, lieux et itineraires augustiniens du Maghreb central (0)

Andorra (2 TWHS)
Eglises romanes d’Andorre (1)
Ensemble historique de Santa Coloma (0)

Angola (11 TWHS)
Church of Nossa Senhora da Conceicao da Muxima (0)
Church of Nossa Senhora da Victoria (0)
Church of Nossa Senhora do Rosario (0)
Fortress of Kambambe (0)
Fortress of Massanganu (0)
Fortress of Muxima (0)
Fortress of S.Francisco do Penedo (0)
Fortress of S.Miguel (1)
Fortress of S.Pedro da Barra (0)
Little Fort of Kikombo (0)
Ruin of M’banza Kongo (0)

Antigua and Barbuda (1 TWHS)
Nelson’s Dockyard (1)

Argentina (6 TWHS)
Campos Volcánicos Llancanelo y Payun Matru, Distrito Payunia (0)
Casa Curutchet (2)
Parque Nacional Los Alerces (PNLA) (0)
Qhapaq Nan – Camino Principal Andino (1)
Sierra de las Quijadas National Park (0)
Valle Calchaquí (1)

Armenia (4 TWHS)
The archaeological site of the city of Dvin (2)
The basilica and archaeological site of Yererouk (0)
The monasteries of Tatev and Tatevi (0)
The monastery of Noravank and the upper Amaghou Valley (0)

Australia (2 TWHS)
Great Sandy World Heritage Area (0)
The Gondwana Rainforests of Australia World Heritage Area (extension to existing property)(0)

Austria (10 TWHS)
Abbey of Kremsmünster (0)
Bregenzerwald (Bregenz Forest) (0)
Cathedral of Gurk (0)
Cultural Landscape of Innsbruck-Nordkette/Karwendel (2)
Frontiers of the Roman Empire – The Danube Limes in Austria (0)
Hall in Tyrol – The Mint (0)
Heiligenkreuz Abbey (0)
Hochosterwitz Castle (0)
Iron Trail with Erzberg and the old town of Steyr (1)
National Park “Hohe Tauern” (1)

Azerbaijan (10 TWHS)
“Baku Stage” Mountain (0)
“Binegadi” 4th Period Fauna and Flora Deposit (0)
“Lok-Batan” Mud Cone (0)
Hyrkan State Reservation (0)
Ordubad historical and architectural reserve (0)
Sheki, the Khan’s Palace (0)
Surakhany, Atashgyakh (Fire – worshippers, temple – museum at Surakhany) (0)
Susha historical and architectural reserve (1)
The Caspian Shore Defensive Constructions (0)
The mausoleum of Nakhinchevan (1)

Bahrain (5 TWHS)
Barbar Temple (2)
Burial Ensembles of Dilmun and Tylos (1)
Hamad Town Tumuli Moundfield (2)
Hawar Islands Reserve (1)
Saar Heritage Park (2)

Bangladesh (5 TWHS)
Halud Vihara (0)
Jaggadala Vihara (0)
Lalbagh Fort (2)
Mahansthangarh and its Environs (2)
The Lalmai-Mainamati Group of monuments (1)

Barbados (2 TWHS)
The Industrial Heritage of Barbados: The Story of Sugar (0)
The Scotland District of Barbados (0)

Belarus (11 TWHS)
Architectural ensemble of Francysk Scaryna avenue in Minsk (1940’s -1950’s) (1)
Augustow Canal (0)
Brest Fortress
Edifices for Worship of Fortress Type in Belarus, Poland and Lithuania (0)
Kamyanets Tower
National Park “Belovezhskaya Pushcha” (0)
Palace and Park Ensemble in the city of Homel
Saviour Transfiguration Church and St. Sophia Cathedral in the town of Polatsk
SS. Boris and Gleb (Kalozha) Church in the city of Hrodna (0)
St. Nicholas Monastery Complex in the city of Mahilyou (0)
Worship wooden architecture (17th -18th centuries) in Polesye (0)

Belgium (16 TWHS)
Hoge Kempen Rural – Industrial Transition Landscape (0)
L’ensemble thermal de Spa : de la cure mondaine ŕ la villégiature de prestige (1)
L’oeuvre architecturale d’Henry van de Velde (0)
Le champ de bataille de Waterloo, la fin de l’épopée napoléonienne (1)
Le noyau historique médiéval ou la “Cuve” de Gand (5)
Le Palais de Justice de Bruxelles (3)
Le palais de Princes Eveques de Ličge (0)
Le Panorama de la Bataille de Waterloo, exemple particuličrement significatif de Ť Phénomčne de Panoramas ť (1)
Le plateau des Hautes-Fagnes (1)
Le tronçon Bavay-Tongres de la chaussée romaine Boulogne-Cologne situe sur le territoire de la Région wallonne (1)
Le Westhoek, lieu de mémoire et monuments de la Grande Guerre (3)
Les citadelles mosanes (1)
Les passages de Bruxelles / Les Galeries Royales Saint-Hubert (4)
Leuven/Louvain, batiments universitaires, l’héritage de six sičcles au sein du centre historique(2)
Maison Guiette, Populierenlaan 32, Antwerpen (3)
Noyau historique d’Antwerpen -Anvers- de l’Escaut aux anciens remparts de vers 1250 (2)

Benin (6 TWHS)
La Reserve W du Niger et l’habitat vernaculaire du nord Bénin (0)
La ville d’Ouidah : quartiers anciens et Route de l’Esclave (0)
La ville de Porto-Novo: quartiers anciens et Palais Royal (0)
Parc National de la Pendjari (0)
Site Lacustre de Ganvi (0)
Village souterrain d’Agongointo-Zoungoudo (1)

Bhutan (8 TWHS)
Ancient Ruin of Drukgyel Dzong (0)
Bumdeling Wildlife Sanctuary (0)
Dzongs: the centre of temporal and religious authorities (Punakha Dzong, Wangdue Phodrang Dzong, Paro Dzong, Trongsa Dzo (1)
Jigme Dorji National Park (JDNP) (0)
Royal Manas National Park (RMNP) (0)
Sacred Sites associated with Phajo Drugom Zhigpo and his descendants (0)
Sakteng Wildlife Sanctuary (SWS) (0)
Tamzhing Monastery (0)

Bolivia (6 TWHS)
Cal Orck’o: Footprints of time (1)
Incallajta, the largest Inca site in the Kollasuyo (0)
Pulacayo, Industrial Heritage Site (0)
Sacred Titicaca Lake (0)
Sajama National Park (0)
Sistema Vial Andino/Qhapaq Nan (0)

Bosnia Herzegovina (8 TWHS)
Sarajevo – unique symbol of universal multiculture – continual open city (2)
Stecaks – Mediaeval Tombstones (2)
The historic urban site of Počitelj (1)
The natural and architectural ensemble of Blagaj (2)
The natural and architectural ensemble of Blidinje (0)
The natural and architectural ensemble of Jajce (2)
The natural and architectural ensemble of Stolac (1)
Vjetrenica cave (0)

Botswana (8 TWHS)
Central Kalahari Game Reserve (0)
Chobe Linyanti System (0)
Gcwihaba Caves (0)
Makgadikgadi Pans Landscape (0)
Mapungubwe Cultural Landscape (Trans-boundary Listing) (0)
Okavango Delta (0)
Toutswemogala Hill Iron Age Settlement (0)
Tswapong Hills Cultural Landscape (0)

Brazil (15 TWHS)
Anavilhanas Ecological Station (0)
Canyon du Rio Peruaçu, Minas Gerais (0)
Cavernas do Peruaçu Federal Environmental Protection Area (APA) / Veredas Do Peruaçu State Park (0)
Eglise et Monastčre de Sao Bento, Rio de Janeiro (0)
Ensemble architectonique de tourisme et loisir au bord du lac de Pampulha (0)
Gold Route in Parati and its landscape (2)
Palais de la Culture, ancien sičge du Ministere de l’Education et de la Santé, Rio de Janeiro (0)
Parc National de la Serra da Bocaina (Sao Paulo – Rio de Janeiro) (0)
Parc National du Pico da Neblina (Amazonas) (0)
Reserve biologique de Atol das Rocas (Rio Grande do Norte) (0)
Serra da Canastra National Park (0)
Serra da Capivara National Park and Permanent Preservation Areas (0)
Serra do Divisor National Park (0)
Station Écologique de Taim (Rio Grande do Sul) (0)
Station Écologique du Raso da Catarina (Bahia) (0)

Bulgaria (13 TWHS)
Central Balkan National Park (0)
Pobiti Kamani Natural Monument (0)
Rocks of Belogradchik (0)
The Ancient Plovdiv (0)
The ancient town of Nicopolis ad Istrum (0)
The Bachkovo Monastery (0)
The late ancient tomb of Silistra (0)
The Magoura cave with drawings from the bronze age. (0)
The Roussensky Lom National Park. (0)
The town of Melnik and the Rozhen Monastery (1)
Thracian Tomb with Wall Paintings beside Alexandrovo village (0)
Two neolithic dwellings with their interior and household furnishings and utensils completely preserved. (1)
Vratsa Karst Nature Reserve (0)

Burkina Faso (7 TWHS)
Cour royale de Tiébélé (0)
La réserve de Biosphčre de la Mare aux Hippopotames de Bala (0)
Le complexe Parcs nationaux Arly-W (0)
Les gravures rupestres du Sahel burkinabč : Pobé-Mengao, Arbinda et Markoye (0)
Les necropoles de Bourzanga (0)
Les sites de métallurgie ancienne de réduction du fer dans les espaces boose et bwi (Ronguin, Tiwega, Yamane, Kindbo, Be (0)
Sya, centre historique de Bobo-Dioulasso (0)

Burundi (10 TWHS)
Gasumo, la source la plus méridionale du Nil (0)
La réserve naturelle de la Rusizi (0)
La résidence royale du Burundi: Le cas de Gishora (0)
Le lac Tanganyika (1)
Le parc national de la Kibira (0)
Le parc national de la Ruvubu (0)
Le rugo traditionnel du Mugamba (0)
Les chutes de la Karera et la faille de Nyakazu (0)
Les paysages naturels sacrés de Muramvya, de Mpotsa et de Nkiko-Mugamba (0)
Rwihinda, lac aux oiseaux (0)

Cambodia (9 TWHS)
Ensemble de Banteay Chmar (1)
Ensemble de Banteay Prei Nokor (0)
Ensemble de Beng Mealea (1)
Ensemble du Prah Khan de Kompong Svay (0)
Groupe de Sambor Prei Kuk (1)
Le site de Koh Ker (1)
Site d’Angkor Borei et Phnom Da (0)
Site d’Oudong (1)
Site des Kulen (1)

Cameroon (12 TWHS)
Complexe des parcs nationaux de Boumba Bek et de Nki (0)
La chefferie de Bafut (0)
Le Lamidat de Rey-Bouba (0)
Les chutes de la Lob (0)
Les Diy-Gid-Biy du Mont Mandara (0)
Les Gravures Rupestres de Bidzar (0)
Mégalithiques de Saa (0)
Parc national de Campo Ma’an (0)
Parc national de Korup (0)
Parc national de Waza (0)
Partie camerounaise du Lac Tchad (0)
Site archéologique de Shum Laka (0)

Canada (7 TWHS)
Áísínai’pi (1)
Atikaki / Woodland Caribou / Accord First Nations (Pimachiowin Aki) (0)
Gwaii Haanas (0)
Ivvavik / Vuntut / Herschel Island (Qikiqtaruk) (0)
Mistaken Point (2)
Quttinirpaaq (0)
The Klondike (0)

Cape Verde (5 TWHS)
Camp de concentration de Tarrafal (0)
Cova e Montantes de Ribeiras da Torre et do Paul (0)
La Saline de Pedra Lume (1)
Le Plateau de la ville de Praia (0)
Ville de Sao Filipe (0)

Centr. Afr. Republic (9 TWHS)
La colline et la plaine, la rivičre Oubangui et le patrimoine colonial bati de la ville de Bangui (0)
La foręt et les campements résidentiels de référence pygmée AKA de la République Centrafricaine (0)
La Réserve intégrale de la Mbaéré-Bondingué (0)
Le Tata (palais fortifié) du Sultan Sénoussi, les grottes de Kaga-Kpoungouvou, la ville de Ndélé (0)
Les chutes de la Mbi (0)
Les gravures rupestres de Lengo (0)
Les mégalithes de Bouar (0)
Les sites paléo-métallurgiques de Bangui (0)
Les vestiges du train de Zinga (0)

Chad (8 TWHS)
Gravures et peintures rupestres de l’Ennedi et du Tibesti (0)
La région d’Archei : le paysage naturel, culturel et son art rupestre (0)
Lac Tchad (1)
Le site métallurgique de Begon II (0)
Les curieuses mines de fer de Télé-Nugar (0)
Les ruines d’Ouara (0)
Parc national de Zakouma (0)
Site ŕ Hominidés anciens du Djourab (0)

Chile (18 TWHS)
Archaeological sites of the Chinchorro culture (0)
Ayquina and Toconce (0)
Baquedano Street (1)
Cerro el Plomo high shrine (0)
Churches of the Altiplano (0)
Fell and Pali Aike Caves (0)
Houses of the hacienda San José del Carmen el Huique (0)
Juan Fernandez Archipielago National Park (1)
La Moneda Palace (0)
Locomotive depot of the Temuco Railroad Station (0)
Malleco Viaduct (0)
Monte Verde Archaeological Site (0)
Rupestrian art of the Patagonia (0)
San Francisco Church and Convent (0)
San Pedro de Atacama (0)
Sistema Vial Andino/ Qhapaq Ńan (0)
The Defensive Complex of Valdivia (0)
Torres del Paine and Bernardo O’Higgins National Parks, Region of Magallanes (0)

China (48 TWHS)
Ancient Porcelain Kiln Site in China: The Yue-Kiln Site at Shanglin Lake (0)
Ancient Residences in Shanxi and Shaanxi Provinces (0)
Ancient Tea Plantations of Jingmai Mountain in Pu’er (1)
Archaeological Sites of the Ancient Shu State: Site at Jinsha and Joint Tombs of Boat- shaped Coffins in Chengdu City, S (0)
Baiheliang Ancient Hydrological Inscription (0)
China Altay (0)
Chinese Section of the Silk Road (1)
City Walls of the Ming and Qing Dynasties (1)
Dali Chanshan Mountain and Erhai Lake Scenic Spot (0)
Diaolou Buildings and Villages for Tibetan and Qiang Ethnic Groups (0)
Dong Villages (0)
Dongzhai Port Nature Reserve (0)
Expansion Project of Imperial Tombs of the Ming and Qing Dynasties: King Lujian’s Tombs(0)
Fenghuang Ancient City (1)
Haitan Scenic Spots (0)
Heaven Pit and Ground Seam Scenic Spot (0)
Hua Shan Scenic Area (0)
Jinfushan Scenic Spot (0)
Karakorum-Pamir (0)
Karez Wells (0)
Kulangsu (0)
Liangzhu Archaeological Site (0)
Lingqu Canal (0)
Maijishan Scenic Spots (0)
Miao Nationality Villages in Southeast Guizhou Province (0)
Nanxi River (0)
Poyang Nature Reserve (0)
SanFangQiXiang (0)
Shennongjia Nature Reserve (0)
Site of Southern Yue State (1)
Sites for Liquor Making in China (0)
Sites of Hongshan Culture: The Niuheliang Archaeological Site, the Hongshanhou Archaeological Site, and Weijiawopu Archa (0)
Slender West Lake and Historic Urban Area in Yangzhou (1)
Taklimakan Desert—Populus euphratica Forests (0)
The Alligator Sinensis Nature Reserve (0)
The Ancient Waterfront Towns in the South of Yangtze River (0)
The Central Axis of Beijing (including Beihai) (1)
The Four Sacred Mountains as an Extension of Mt. Taishan (2)
The Grand Canal (3)
The Lijiang River Scenic Zone at Guilin (2)
The Rock Painting of the Mountain Huashan (0)
Tusi Chieftain Sites: Laosicheng Site, Hailongtun Site, Tang Ya Tusi Site and Rongmei Tusi Site (0)
Western Xia Imperial Tombs (0)
Wooden Structures of Liao DynastyĄŞWooden Pagoda of Yingxian CountyŁŹMain Hall of Fengguo Monastery of Yixian County (0)
Wudalianchi Scenic Spots (1)
Yalong, Tibet (0)
Yandang Mountain (0)
Yangtze Gorges Scenic Spot (0)

Colombia (18 TWHS)
Buritaca 200 – Ciudad Perdida – Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta (0)
Canal del Dique – Dike Canal (0)
Catholic Doctrine Temples (0)
Chiribiquete National Park (0)
Cultural Landscape of Salt Towns (0)
Cultural Landscape of the Lower Basin of the Chicamocha River (0)
Cultural Landscape of the Vernacular Stilt Housing of Cienaga Grande de Santa Marta and of Medio Atrato (0)
Pre-Hispanic Hydraulic System of the San Jorge River (0)
Puente de Occidente (Western Bridge) (0)
Seaflower Marine Protected Area (0)
Sistema Hidraulico Prehispanico del Rio San Jorge (0)
Sistema Vial Andino/Qhapaq Nan (0)
South of Ricaurte Province (0)
Tatacoa Desert (0)
Tayrona and Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta National Parks and their Archaeological Sites (0)
United Fruit Company Infrastructure (0)
University City of Bogotá (0)
Virgilio Barco Library (0)

Comoros (4 TWHS)
Ecosystčmes Marins de l’Archipel des Comores (0)
Ecosystčmes terrestres et paysage culturel de l’Archipel des Comores (1)
Paysage Culturel des Plantations ŕ Parfums des Iles de la Lune (0)
Sultanats Historiques des Comores (1)

Congo (Democratic Republic) (3 TWHS)
Dépression de l’Upemba (0)
Grottes de Dimba et Ngovo (0)
Grottes de Matupi (0)

Congo (Republic) (4 TWHS)
Ancien port d’embarquement des esclaves de Loango (0)
Domaine royal de Mb (0)
Le Parc National de Conkouati-Douli (0)
Parc national d’Odzala-Kokoua (0)

Costa Rica (2 TWHS)
Corcovado National Park and Isla del Cano Biological Reserve (1)
Precolumbian chiefdom settlements with stone spheres of Diquís (0)

Côte d’Ivoire (3 TWHS)
Mosquées de style soudanais du Nord ivoirien (site en serie) (0)
Parc archeologique d’Ahouakro (0)
Parc national des Iles Ehotil (0)

Croatia (17 TWHS)
Burg – Castle of Veliki Tabor (0)
City of Motovun (0)
Diocletian’s Palace and the Historical Nucleus of Split (extension) (0)
Frontiers of the Roman Empire, Croatian Limes (0)
Hermitage Blaca (0)
Historical-town planning ensemble of Ston with Mali Ston, connecting walls, the Mali Ston Bay nature reserve, Stonsko Po (2)
Historical-Town Planning Ensemble Tvrda (Fort) in Osijek (0)
Kornati National Park and Telašćica Nature Park (0)
Lonjsko Polje Nature Park (0)
Lubenice (0)
Primošten Vineyards (0)
Stećci – Medieval Tombstones (0)
The historic town of Korcula (1)
The Venetian Works of defence between 15th and 17th centuries (0)
Varazdin – Historic Nucleus and Old Town (the Castle) (0)
Velebit Mountain (0)
Zadar – Episcopal complex (0)

Cuba (3 TWHS)
Cienaga de Zapata National Park (0)
National Schools of Art, Cubanacan (0)
Reef System in the Cuban Caribbean (0)

Cyprus (12 TWHS)
Agia Paraskevi at Geroskipou (Five-domed churches) (0)
Agioi Varnavas and Ilarion at Peristerona (Five-domed churches) (0)
Church of Ayios Mamas, Louvaras (extension to “Painted Churches in the Troodos”) (0)
Church of Ayios Sozomenos, Galata (extension to “Painted Churches in the Troodos Region”)(0)
Church of Panayia Chrysokourdaliotissa, Kourdali (extension to “Painted Churches in the Troodos Region”) (0)
Khandria (0)
Kionia (0)
Klirou Bridge (0)
Malounta Bridge (0)
Mathiatis South (0)
The rural settlement of Fikardou (0)
Troodos, Mt.Olympus (0)

Czech Republic (17 TWHS)
Ceský ráj (Czech Paradise) Rock Cities (0)
Cultural landscape of the stud farm at Kladruby nad Labem (0)
Extension of the World Heritage Site “Historic Centre of Prague” with the important Monuments in its Vicinity (0)
Fishpond Network in the Trebon Basin (0)
Mining Cultural Landscape Erzgebirge/Krušnohoří (0)
Mountain-top Hotel and Television Transmitter Ještěd (0)
Paper Mill at Velké Losiny (1)
Paysage culturel minier des Monts Métallifčres (Erzgebirge) (0)
Renaissance Houses at Slavonice
Sites of Great Moravia: Slavonic Fortified Settlement at Mikulcice – Church of St.Margaret at Kopcani (1)
The Betlém Rock Sculptures near Kuks (0)
The Forstress of Terez (1)
The Industrial Complexes at Ostrava (1)
The Karlstejn Castle (0)
The Spa at Luhacovice (0)
The West Bohemian Spa Triangle – Karlovy Vary, Františkovy Lázně, Mariánské Lázně

Denmark (11 TWHS)
Aasivissuit, Arnangarnup Qoorua (Greenlandic inland and coastal hunting area) (0)
Amalienborg and its district (2)
Christiansfeld, the Town (2)
Church ruin at Hvalsř, episcopal residence at Gardar, and Brattahlid (A Norse/Eskimo cultural landscape) (2)
Moler landscapes of the Liim Fiord (0)
Stevns Klint (0)
The International Wadden Sea (0)
The Parforce Hunting landscape in North Zealand (0)
The Trelleborg fortresses (0)
VIKING MONUMENTS AND SITES / Jelling mounds, runic stones, palisade area and church (0)
VIKING MONUMENTS AND SITES / The Trelleborg fortresses, Denmark (0)

Dominican Rep. (14 TWHS)
Archaeological and Historical National Park of Pueblo Viejo, La Vega (0)
Archaeological and Historical National Park of the Villa of La Isabela, Puerto Plata (0)
Boca De Nigua Sugar Mill [Ruta de Los Ingenios] (0)
City of Azúa de Compostela (0)
Historical Centre of Puerto Plata (0)
Jacagua, Villa of Santiago (0)
Jaragua National Park (0)
Montecristi (0)
Nuestra Senora de Monte Alegre or la Duquesa Sugar Mill [Ruta de Los Ingenios] (0)
Parque Nacional del Este (0)
Sanate Sugar Mill [Ruta de Los Ingenios] (0)
The Ancient Big House of Palavé [Ruta de Los Ingenios] (0)
The Ancient Diego Caballero Sugar Mill [Ruta de Los Ingenios] (0)
The Sugar Mill of Engombe [Ruta de Los Ingenios] (0)

Ecuador (7 TWHS)
Bosque petrificado de Puyango (0)
Ciudad de Zaruma (0)
Complejo de fortificaciones precolombinas de Pambamarca (0)
Lacs du Cajas et Ruines de Paredones (0)
Parque Nacional Machalilla (0)
Sistema Vial Andino/Qhapaq Ńan (0)
Sitio arqueoligico de Ingapirca (0)

Egypt (32 TWHS)
Abydos, city of pilgrimage of the Pharaohs (1)
Alexandria, ancient remains and the new library (1)
Bird Migration Routes (0)
Dababiya (0)
Dahab (2)
Dahshour archaeological area (2)
Desert Wadis (0)
El Fayoum: Kom Aushim (Karanis), Dimai (Soknopaiounesos), Qasr Qarun (Dionysias), Batn I hrit (Theadelphia), Byahma-Medi (0)
El-Gendi Fortress (0)
Gebel Qatrani Area, Lake Qaroun Nature Reserve (1)
Great Desert Landscapes (0)
Helwan Observatory (0)
Historic quarters and monuments of Rosetta/Rachid (0)
Minia (0)
Mountain Chains (0)
Necropolises of Middle Egypt, from the Middle Empire to the Roman period (0)
Newibah castle (0)
North Sinai archaeological Sites Zone (0)
Oasis of Fayoum, hydraulic remains and ancient cultural landscapes (0)
Pharaon Island (0)
Pharaonic temples in Upper Egypt from the Ptolemaic and Roman periods (2)
Raoudha nilometre in Cairo (0)
Ras Mohammed (0)
Rutho Monastery (0)
Siwa archaeological area (0)
Southern and Smaller Oases, the Western Desert (1)
Temple of Hator built by Ramses III (0)
Temple of Serabit Khadem (0)
The An-Nakhl fortress, a stage on the pilgrimage route to Mecca (0)
The monasteries of the Arab Desert and Wadi Natrun (1)
Two citadels in Sinai from the Saladin period (Al-Gundi and Phataoh’s island) (0)
Wadi Feiran (1)

El Salvador (6 TWHS)
Cacaopera (0)
Cara Sucia / El Imposible (0)
Chalchuapa (0)
Ciudad Vieja / La Bermuda (0)
Gulf of Fonseca (0)
Lake Guija (0)

Eritrea (2 TWHS)
Qoahito Cultural Landscape (1)
The Historic Perimeter of Asmara and its Modernist Architecture (1)

Estonia (3 TWHS)
Baltic Klint (0)
Kuressaare Fortress (0)
Wooded meadows (Laelatu, Kalli-Nedrema, M?epea, Allika, Tagamoisa, Loode, Koiva, Halliste)(0)

Ethiopia (5 TWHS)
Bale Mountains National Park (1)
Dirre Sheik Hussein Religious, Cultural and Historical Site (0)
Gedeo Mixed Cultural and Natural Landscape (0)
Holqa Sof Omar: Natural and Cultural Heritage (Sof Omar: Caves of Mystery) (0)
Melka Kunture and Bachilt Archaeological Site (0)

Fiji (3 TWHS)
Sigatoka Sand Dunes (0)
Sovi Basin (0)
Yaduataba Crested Iguana Sanctuary (1)

Finland (6 TWHS)
Paimio Hospital (formerly Paimio Sanatorium) (1)
Saimaa-Pielinen Lake System (0)
The Carvings from historic time at the island of Gaddtarmen (Hauensuoli) (1)
The Holy place of worship of Ukonsaari by the Sami people at Inari (0)
The large Stone Age ruin of Kastelli at Pattijoki (0)
The Rock paintings of Astuvansalmi at Ristiina (1)

France (32 TWHS)
Ancienne chocolaterie Menier ŕ Noisiel (0)
Arsenal de Rochefort et fortifications de l’estuaire de la Charente (0)
Bouches de Bonifacio (0)
Cathédrale de Saint-Denis (2)
Centre ancien de Sarlat (0)
Chaîne des Puys et faille de Limagne (0)
Chateau de Vaux-le-Vicomte (0)
Ensemble de grottes ŕ concrétions du Sud de la France (0)
Espace transfrontalier Marittime-Mercantour (Les Alpes de la Mer) (2013) (0)
Hangar Y (0)
L’oeuvre architecturale et urbaine de Le Corbusier (2)
La Camargue (1)
La Grotte ornée Chauvet-Pont d’Arc (0)
Le chemin de fer de Cerdagne (0)
Le rivage méditerranéen des Pyrénées (0)
Le site sacré de Tapu-tapu-âtea /Te Pô, vallée de Ô-po-ä (0)
Le vignoble Champenois (0)
Les Iles Marquises (1)
Les villes antiques de la Narbonnaise et leur territoire: Nimes, Arles, Glanum, aqueducs, via Domitia (1)
Les villes bastionnées des Pays-Bas du nord-ouest de l’Europe (0)
Marais salants de Guérande (0)
Massif du Mont Blanc (0)
Nîmes, l’Antiquité au présent (0)
Office National d’Etudes et de Recherches Aérospatiales, Meudon (0)
Parc national de la Vanoise (0)
Parc national de Port-Cros (0)
Parc national des Écrins (0)
Phare de Cordouan (0)
Rade de Marseille (2)
Rouen : ensemble urbain ŕ pans de bois, cathédrale, église Saint-Ouen, église Saint Maclou(1)
Sites mégalithiques de Carnac (0)
Vignoble des côtes de Nuits et de Beaune (0)

FYR of Macedonia (3 TWHS)
Archaeo-astronomical Site Kokino (0)
Cave Slatinski Izvor (0)
Markovi Kuli (0)

Gabon (7 TWHS)
Ancien Hôpital Albert Schweitzer de Lambaréné (0)
Ecosystčme et paysage culturel pygmée du massif de Minkébé (0)
Grottes de Lastourville (0)
Parc national d’Ivindo (0)
Parc national de Moukalaba Doudou (0)
Parc national des Monts Birougou (0)
Parc national des Plateaux Batéké (0)

Georgia (16 TWHS)
Alaverdi Cathedral (1)
Ananuri (0)
Colchis Wetlands and Forests (0)
David Gareji Monasteries and Hermitage (1)
Dmanisi Hominid Archaeological Site (0)
Gelati Monastery (0)
Gremi Church of Archangels and Royal Tower (0)
Kvetera Church (0)
Mta-Tusheti (0)
Nicortsminda Cathedral (0)
Samtavisi Cathedral (0)
Shatili (0)
Tbilisi Historic District (2)
Uplistsikhe Cave Town (2)
Vani (0)
Vardzia-Khertvisi (0)

Germany (10 TWHS)
Corvey Abbey and Castle (3)
Francke Foundation Buildings (0)
Heidelberg, town and castle (3)
L’oeuvre architecturale et urbaine de Le Corbusier / deux maisons du Weissenhof-Siedlung & Stuttgart (1)
Mining Cultural Landscape Erzgebirge/Krušnohoří (0)
Schwetzingen, castle and castle gardens (1)
Speicherstadt and Chilehaus with Kontorhaus District (1)
The Naumburg Cathedral (0)
The Wadden Sea (extension) (0)
VIKING MONUMENTS AND SITES / Danevirke and Hedeby (1)

Ghana (6 TWHS)
Kakum National Park (1)
Mole National Park (0)
Navrongo Catholic Cathedral (0)
Nzulezu Stilt Settlement (0)
Tenzug – Tallensi settlements (0)
Trade Pilgrimage Routes of North-Western Ghana (0)

Greece (8 TWHS)
Archaeological Site of Nikopolis (0)
Archaeological site of Philippi (0)
Gorge of Samaria National Park (3)
Lavrio (Ancient Laurion) (0)
National Park of Dadia- Lefkimi-Souflion (0)
The Area of the Prespes Lakes: Megali and Mikri Prespa (0)
The broader region of Mount Olympos (0)
The Palace of Knossos (1)

Grenada (3 TWHS)
Grenadines Island Group (1)
St. George Fortified System (0)
St. George Historic District (1)

Guatemala (21 TWHS)
Castle of San Felipe de Lara (1)
Naj Tunich Cave (0)
National Park Sierra del Lacandón (0)
Protected area of Lake Atitl (3)
Route of the Agroindustry and the Architecture Victoriana (0)
Route of the Franciscan Evangelisation (0)
Route of the Peace and National Identity (0)
Route of the to Dominique Evangelisation (0)
Sierra De Las Minas Biosphere Reservation (0)
Tak’alik Ab’aj National Park (0)
The Caves of Naj Tunich (0)
The Core of the Mayan Area (0)
The Cuenca Mirador (0)
The Cultural Triangle (0)
The Green Route of Verapaz (0)
The Manglares Route of Pacific Coast of Guatemala (0)
The Mayan-Olmecan Encounter (0)
The Painted Murals of San Bartolo (0)
The Route of The Rivers (0)
Town of Chichicastenango (1)
Visis Cabá National park and Triangulo Ixil Vernacular Architecture (0)

Guinea (3 TWHS)
Architecture vernaculaire et paysage culturel mandingue du Gberedou/Hamana (0)
Paysage culturel des monts Nimba (0)
Route de l’esclave en Afrique segment de Timbo au Rio Pongo (0)

Guinea Bissau (1 TWHS)
Reserve de Biosphere de l’Archipel des Bijagos (0)

Guyana (5 TWHS)
City Hall, Georgetown (0)
Fort Zeelandia (including Court of Policy Building) (0)
Georgetown’s Plantation Structure and Historic Buildings (0)
Shell Beach (Almond Beach) Essequibo Coast (0)
St.Georges Anglican Cathedral (1)

Haiti (1 TWHS)
Centre historique de Jacmel (1)

Hungary (11 TWHS)
Caves of the Buda Thermal Karst System (1)
Frontiers of the Roman Empire : Ripa Pannonica in Hungary (1)
Le Chateau-fort médieval d’Esztergom (0)
Mediaeval Royal Seat and Parkland at Visegrad (1)
State Stud-Farm Estate of Mezöhegyes (0)
System of Fortifications at the Confluence of the Rivers Danube and Váh in Komárno – Komárom (1)
The Ipolytartnóc Fossils (0)
The Network of Rural Heritage Buildings in Hungary (0)
The Tihany Peninsula (0)
The Wooden Churches of the Northern Part of the Carpathian Basin (0)
Ödön Lechner’s independent pre-modern architecture (1)

Iceland (7 TWHS)
Breiđafjörđur Nature Reserve (0)
Mývatn and Laxá (0)
The Turf House Tradition (0)
Torfajökull Volcanic System / Fjallabak Nature Reserve (0)
Vatnajökull National Park (0)
VIKING MONUMENTS AND SITES / Ţingvellir National Park (0)
Ţingvellir National Park (0)

India (33 TWHS)
Ancient Buddhist Site, Sarnath, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh (2)
Bhitarkanika Conservation Area (0)
Buddhist Monastery Complex, Alchi, Leh, known as Alchi Chos-kor (1)
Churchgate – Extension to Mumbai CST (0)
Delhi – A Heritage City (0)
Desert National Park (0)
Dholavira: a Harappan City, Gujarat, Disstt, Kachchh (0)
Excavated Remains at Nalanda (1)
Golconda Fort, Hyderbad, Andhra Pradesh (1)
Great Himalayan National Park (0)
Group of Monuments at Mandu, Madhya Pradesh (0)
Hemis Gompa (1)
Historic city of Ahmadabad (1)
Kangchendzonga National Park (0)
Mattanchery Palace, Ernakulam, Kerala (2)
Mughal Gardens in Kashmir (0)
Namdapha National Park (0)
Neora Valley National Park (0)
Oak Grove School (3)
Rani-ki-Vav (The Queens Stepwell) at Patan, Gujarat (0)
River island of Majuli in midstream of Brahmaputra River in Assam (5)
Santiniketan (1)
Silk Road Sites in India (1)
Sri Harimandir Sahib, Amritsar, Punjab (1)
Temples at Bishnupur, West Bengal (0)
The Kangra Valley Railway – Extension to the Mountain Railways of India (0)
The Maharaja Railways of India (0)
The Matheran Light Railway (extension to the Mountain Railways of India) (0)
The Qutb Shahi Monuments of Hyderabad Golconda Fort, Qutb Shahi Tombs, Charminar (1)
The Victorian & Art Deco Ensemble of Mumbai (0)
Tomb of Sher Shah Suri, Sasaram, Bihar (2)
Urban and Architectural Work of Le Corbusier in Chandigarh (1)
Wild Ass Sanctuary, Little Rann of Kutch (0)

Indonesia (26 TWHS)
Banda Islands (0)
Banten Ancient City (1)
Bawomataluo Site (0)
Belgica Fort (0)
Besakih (0)
Betung Kerihun National Park (Transborder Rainforest Heritage of Borneo) (0)
Bunaken National Park (0)
Derawan Islands (0)
Elephant Cave (1)
Great Mosque of Demak (0)
Gunongan Historical Park (0)
Muara Takus Compound Site (0)
Muarajambi Temple Compound (1)
Ngada traditional house and megalithic complex (0)
Penataran Hindu Temple Complex (0)
Prehistoric Cave Sites in Maros-Pangkep (1)
Pulau Penyengat Palace Complex (0)
Raja Ampat Islands (1)
Ratu Boko Temple Complex (1)
Sukuh Hindu Temple (0)
Taka Bonerate National Park (0)
Tana Toraja Traditional Settlement (1)
Trowulan Ancient City (1)
Wakatobi National Park (0)
Waruga Burial Complex (0)
Yogyakarta Palace Complex (1)

Iran (52 TWHS)
Alisadr Cave (0)
Arasbaran Protected Area (1)
Bastam and Kharghan (0)
Bazaar of Qaisariye in Laar (0)
Cultural Landscape of Alamout (1)
Damavand (0)
Firuzabad Ensemble (0)
Ghaznavi- Seljukian Axis in Khorasan (0)
Golestan National Park (0)
Hamoun Lake (0)
Harra Protected Area (0)
Hegmataneh (0)
Historic ensemble of Qasr-e Shirin (0)
Historic Monument of Kangavar (0)
Historical Ensemble of Qasr-e Shirin (0)
Hyrcanian Forest (Caspian Forest) (0)
Jiroft (0)
Kaboud Mosque (1)
Kerman Historical-Cultural Structure (0)
Khabr National Park and Ruchun Wildlife Refuge (0)
Khorramabad Valley (0)
Kuh-e Khuaja (0)
Lut Desert (the vicinity of Shahdad) (0)
Nasqsh-e Rostam and Naqsh-e Rajab (0)
Persepolis and other relevant buildings (0)
Qanats of Gonabad (0)
Qeshm Island (0)
Sabalan (0)
Shahr-e Sukhteh (0)
Shush (0)
Silk Route (Also as Silk Road) (0)
Susa (1)
Tape Sialk (0)
Taq-e Bostan (0)
The Collection of Historical Bridges (0)
The Complex of Handmade Settlements in Iran (Maymand Village) (0)
The Complex of Izadkhast (0)
The Cultural Landscape of Uramanat (0)
The Cultural-Natural Landscape of Ramsar (0)
The Ensemble of Historical Sassanian Cities in Fars Province (Bishabpur, Firouzabad, Sarvestan) (0)
The Historical City of Masouleh (0)
The Historical City of Maybod (0)
The Historical Port of Siraf (0)
The Historical Structure of Yazd (0)
The Historical Texture of Damghan (0)
The Historical Village of Abyaneh (0)
The Historical-Cultural Axis of Fin, Sialk, Kashan (0)
The Natural-Historical Landscape of Izeh (1)
The Zandiyeh Ensemble of Fars Province (0)
Touran Biosphere Reserve (0)
Tous Cultural Landscape (0)
Zozan (0)

Iraq (11 TWHS)
Amedy city (0)
Erbil Citadel (0)
Nimrud (0)
The Ancient City of Nineveh (0)
The Fortress of Al-Ukhaidar (0)
The Marshlands of Mesopotamia (0)
The Sacred Complex of Babylon (1)
The Site of Thilkifl (0)
Ur (0)
Wadi Al-Salam Cemetery in Najaf (0)
Wasit (0)

Ireland (7 TWHS)
Early Medieval Monastic Sites (0)
The Burren (0)
The Céide Fields and North West Mayo Boglands (0)
The Historic City of Dublin (2)
The Monastic City of Clonmacnoise and its Cultural Landscape (0)
The Royal Sites of Ireland: Cashel, Dún Ailinne, Hill of Uisneach, Rathcroghan Complex, and Tara Complex (0)
Western Stone Forts (1)

Israel (18 TWHS)
Arbel (arbel, nebe shueb, horns of hittim) (1)
Bet She’an (3)
Beth She’arim (1)
Caesarea (1)
Degania & Nahalal (2)
Early Synagogues in the Galilee (2)
Horvat Minnim (1)
Jerusalem (2)
Makhteshim Country (2)
Mount Karkom (0)
Region of the Caves & Hiding: bet Guvrin- Maresha (1)
Sea of Galilee & its Ancient Sites (3)
The Crusader Fortresses (2)
The Galilee Journeys of Jesus & the Apostles (1)
The Great Rift Valley – migratory routes – The Hula (1)
Timna (1)
Triple-arch Gate at Dan & Sources of the Jordan (2)
White Mosque in Ramle (1)

Italy (41 TWHS)
Arab-Norman Palermo and the cathedral churches of Cefalů’ and Monreale (1)
Archipelago of la Maddalena and Islands of Bocche di Bonifacio (1)
Bradyseism in the Flegrea Area (0)
Cappella degli Scrovegni (4)
Cascata delle Marmore and valnerina: Monastic sites and ancient hydrogeological reclamation works (0)
Cattolica Monastery in Stilo and Basilian-Byzantine complexes (0)
Centro Storico di Lucca (1)
Centro storico di Parma (1)
Centro Storico di Pavia e Certosa (2)
Citadel of Alessandria (1)
Cittá-fortezza di Palmanova (2)
Espace transfrontalier Marittime-Mercantour (Les Alpes de la Mer) (0)
Giardini Botanici Hambury (0)
Island of Asianra (1)
Ivrea, industrial city of the 20th century (0)
Karstic caves in prehistoric Apulia (0)
Lake Maggiore and Lake D’Orta lakelands (1)
Massif du Mont-Blanc (0)
Monte Sant’ Angelo and the Via Sacra Langobardorum (0)
Mothia and Libeo Island: The Phoenician-Punic Civilization in Italy (0)
Orvieto (2)
Parco Nazionale della Sila – Sila, gran bosco d’Italia (0)
Pelagos: The Cetacean Sanctuary (0)
Ponds in the Bay of Oristano and the Sinis Peninsula island of Mal di Ventre (0)
Romanesque Cathedrals in Puglia (0)
Salento and the “Barocco Leccese” (0)
Sulcis Iglesiente (0)
Taormina and Isola Bella (1)
The Aniene valley and Villa Gregoriana in Tivoli (0)
The city of Bergamo (1)
The Lower Palaeolithic Palaeosurfaces at Isernia-La Pineta and Notarchirico (0)
The Marble Basin of Carrara (1)
The Murge of Altamura (0)
The Porticoes of Bologna (1)
The Prosecco Hills of Conegliano and Valdobbiadene (1)
The Transhumance: The Royal Shepherd’s Track (0)
The Venetian Works of defence between 15th and 17th centuries (0)
Via Appia “Regina Viarum” (0)
Villas of the Papal Nobility (0)
Volterra: Historical City and Cultural Landscape (1)
Wine Grape landscapes: Langhe, Roero, Monferrato and Valtellina (0)

Jamaica (3 TWHS)
Blue and John Crow Mountains National Park (0)
Seville Heritage Park (0)
The Underwater City of Port Royal (0)

Japan (12 TWHS)
Asuka-Fujiwara : Archaeological sites of Japan’s Ancient Capitals and Related Properties (0)
Churches and Christian Sites in Nagasaki (4)
Hikone-Jo (castle) (1)
Hiraizumi – Temples, Gardens and Archaeological Sites Representing the Buddhist Pure Land (extension) (0)
Jômon Archaeological Sites in Hokkaidô, Northern Tôhoku, and other regions (1)
Main Building of the National Museum of Western Art (1)
Mozu-Furuichi Kofungun, Ancient Tumulus Clusters (0)
Okinoshima Island and Related Sites in Munakata Region (0)
Temples, Shrines and other structures of Ancient Kamakura (2)
The Modern Industrial Heritage Sites in Kyushu and Yamaguchi (0)
The Sado complex of heritage mines, primarily gold mines (0)
The Tomioka Silk Mill and Related Industrial Heritage (1)

Jordan (15 TWHS)
Abila City (Modern Qweilbeh) (0)
Al Qastal (Settlement) (0)
Azraq (1)
Dana Biosphere Reserve (1)
Gadara (Modern Um Qeis or Qays) (0)
Jerash Archaeological City (Ancient Meeting Place of East and West) (2)
Mujib Nature Reserve (0)
Old City of Salt (0)
Pella (Modern Tabaqat Fahil) (0)
Qasr Al-Mushatta (0)
Qasr Bshir (a Roman Castellum) (1)
Shaubak Castle (Montreal) (0)
The Baptismal Site (Bethany beyond the Jordan) (2)
The Sanctuary of Agios Lot, At Deir ‘Ain ‘Abata (1)
Um el-Jimal (City) (0)

Kazakhstan (13 TWHS)
Aksu-Zhabagly state natural reserve (0)
Archaeological sites of Otrar oasis Barrows with stone ranges of the Tasmola culture (0)
Barrows with stone ranges of the Tasmola (0)
Cultural landscape of Ulytau (0)
Megalithic mausolea of the Begazy-Dandybai culture (0)
Northern Tyan-Shan (0)
Paleolithic sites and geomorphology of Karatau mountain range (0)
Petroglyphs of Arpa-Uzen (0)
Petroglyphs of Eshkiolmes (0)
Silk Road (0)
State National Natural Park “Altyn-Emel” (0)
Turkic sanctuary ot Merke (0)
Western Tien-Shan (0)

Kenya (18 TWHS)
Aberdare Mountains (0)
Great Rift Valley Ecosystem (0)
Lake Bogoria National Reserve (0)
Lake Naivasha (0)
Lake Nakuru National Park (2)
Mombasa Old Town (1)
The African Great Rift Valley – Olorgesailie Prehistoric Site (1)
The African Great Rift Valley – The Marakwet Escarpment Furrow Irrigation System (0)
The Eastern Arc Coastal Forests (Arabuko-Sokoke Forest and Shimba Hills National Reserve)(0)
The Great Rift Valley – Hell’s Gate National Park (0)
The Great Rift Valley – The Maasai Mara (1)
The Historic Town of Gedi (0)
The Kakemega Forest (0)
The Meru Conservation Area (0)
The Mfangano-Rusinga Island Complex (0)
The Tana Delta and Forests Complex (0)
The Thimlich Ohinga Cultural Landscape (0)
Tsavo Parks and Chyulu Hills Complex (0)

Korea (DPR) (5 TWHS)
Caves in Kujang Area (0)
Historical Relics in Pyongyang (0)
Mt. Chibo (0)
Mt. Myohyang and the Relics in and around the Mountain (0)
Mt.Kumgang and the Historical Relics in and around the Mountain (0)

Korea (Republic) (18 TWHS)
Ancient Mountain Fortresses in Central Korea (1)
Daegokcheon Stream Petroglyphs (0)
Gaya Tumuli of Gimhae – Haman (0)
Gongju and Buyeo Historic Sites (1)
Iksan Historic Areas (1)
Kangjingun Kiln Sites (0)
Mt. Soraksan Nature Reserve (1)
Naganeupseong, Town Fortress and Village (1)
Namhansanseong – Ancient Fortified Military and Cultural Landscape of Mt. Namhansan (1)
Oeam Village (1)
Salterns (0)
Seoul City Wall (1)
Seowon, Confucian Academies of Korea (0)
Sites of fossilized dinosaurs throughout the Southern seacoast (1)
Southwestern Coast Tidal Flats (1)
The Goryeong Jisandong Daegaya Tumuli (0)
Traditional Buddhist Mountain Temples of Korea (1)
Upo Wetland (1)

Kuwait (1 TWHS)
Sa’ad and Sae’ed Area in Failaka Island (0)

Kyrgyzstan (3 TWHS)
Saimaly-Tash Petroglyphs (0)
Silk Roads Sites in Kyrgyzstan (1)
Western Tien-Shan (0)

Laos (2 TWHS)
Sites Megalithiques de la province de Xieng Khouang (3)
That Luang de Vientiane (1)

Latvia (3 TWHS)
Kuldîga Old Town in the Primeval Valley of the River Venta (0)
Meanders of the Upper Daugava (0)
Viking Monuments and Sites / Grobiňa archaeological complex (0)

Lebanon (9 TWHS)
Centre historique de Batroun (0)
Centre Historique de Saida (1)
Centre Historique de Tripoli / Mina (1)
Ensemble du site naturel de la region du Chouf (1)
Ensemble du site naturel de la Vallee du Nahr el Kelb (0)
Ensemble du site naturel de la Vallee du Nahr Ibrahim (0)
Ensemble du site naturel des sources et de la Vallee de l’Oronte (0)
Monument: Temple d’Echmoun (0)
Parc naturel de l’Ile des Palmiers (0)

Lesotho (1 TWHS)
Thaba-Bosiu National Monument (0)

Lithuania (1 TWHS)
Trakai Historical National Park (2)

Luxembourg (1 TWHS)
La ville et le chateau de Vianden (0)

Madagascar (7 TWHS)
Antongona (0)
Falaise et grottes de l’Isandra (0)
Les forets sčches de l’Andrefana (0)
Paysage culturel rizicole et hydraulique de Betafo (0)
Réserve Spéciale d’Anjanaharibe-Sud (extension des foręts humides de l’Atsinanana) (0)
Site et Rova de Tsinjoarivo (1)
Sud-Ouest Malgache, Pays Mahafaly (0)

Malawi (7 TWHS)
Khulubvi And Associated Mbona Sacred Rain Shrines (0)
Lake Chilwa Wetland (0)
Malawi Slave Routes and Dr. David Livingstone Trail (0)
Mulanje Mountain Biosphere Reserve (0)
Nyika National Park (0)
The Chongoni Rock Art Monument Area (0)
Vwaza Marsh Wildlife Reserve (0)

Malaysia (2 TWHS)
Lanjak Entimau Wildlife Sanctuary (LEWS) and Batang Ai National Park (BANP) (0)
The Taman Negara National Park of Peninsular Malaysia (0)

Maldives (1 TWHS)
Coral Stone Mosques of Maldives (0)

Mali (9 TWHS)
Es-Souk (0)
Kamablon (0)
La Boucle du Baoul (0)
La Cité Historique de Hamdallahi (0)
La grande mosquée de vendredi de Niono (0)
La Mosquée de Komoguel (0)
Le Fort de Médine (1)
Le site de Kurukan Fuga (0)
Le Tata de Sikasso (0)

Malta (7 TWHS)
Cittadella (Victoria – Gozo) (0)
Coastal Cliffs (0)
Knights Fortifications around the Harbours of Malta (0)
Maltese Catacomb Complexes (0)
Mdina (Citta Vecchia) (1)
Qawra/Dwejra (2)
Victoria Lines Fortifications (0)

Marshall Islands (3 TWHS)
Likiep Village Historic District (0)
Mili Atoll Nature Conservancy (and Nadrikdrik) (0)
Northern Marshall Islands Atolls (1)

Mauritania (3 TWHS)
Paysage culturel d’Azougui (1)
Site archéologique de Kumbi Saleh (0)
Site archéologique de Tegdaoust (0)

Mauritius (1 TWHS)
Black River Gorges National Park (1)

Mexico (25 TWHS)
Aire de protection de la flore et de la faune Cuatrociénegas (0)
Antique cité maya de Calakmul et la Réserve de la biosphčre (0)
Aqueduct of Padre Tembleque (1)
Archipelago of Revillagigedo (0)
Chapultepec Woods, Hill and Castle (0)
Church of Santa Prisca and its Surroundings (1)
Cuetzalan and its Historical, Cultural and Natural Surrounding (0)
Diego Rivera and Frida Kahlo’s Home-Study Museum (1)
El Arco del Tiempo del Río La Venta (0)
Great City of Chicomostoc-La Quemada (0)
Historic Town of Alamos (0)
Historic Town of San Sebastian del Oeste (0)
Historical city of Izamal (Izamal, Mayan continuity in an Historical City) (0)
Historical Town The Royal of the Eleven Thousand Virgins of Cosala in Sinaloa (0)
Huichol Route through the sacred sites to Huiricuta (Tatehuari Huajuye) (0)
Las Labradas, Sinalao archaeological site (0)
Las Pozas, Xilitla (0)
Los Petenes-Ría Celestún (0)
Pre-Hispanic City of Cantona (0)
Region Lacan-Tún – Usumacinta (0)
Réserve de la biosphere Banco Chincorro (0)
Ring of cenotes of Chicxulub Crater, Yucatan (0)
Tecoaque (1)
Tehuacan-Cuicatlan Biosphere Reserve (0)
Vallée des Cierges (0)

Micronesia (Federated) (2 TWHS)
Ceremonial Centres of the Early Micronesian States: Nan Madol and Lelu (1)
Yapese Disk Money Regional Sites (1)

Moldova (2 TWHS)
The Cultural Landscape Orheiul Vechi (2)
The Typical Crernozem Soils of the Balti Steppe (0)

Mongolia (10 TWHS)
Amarbayasgalant monastery and sacred cultural landscape (0)
Baldan Bereeven Monastry and its sacred surroudings (0)
Gobi Gurvansaikhan Desert Fossil (0)
Great Gobi Desert (0)
Khoit tsenkher cave rock painting (1)
Mongolia Sacred Mountains: Bogd Khan, Burkhan Khaldun, Otgon Tenger (0)
Mongolian Daurian Landscape (0)
Sacred Binder Mountain and its associated cultural heritage sites (0)
The Upper Tsagaan Gol Complex (0)
Tsagaan salaa rock painting (0)

Montenegro (6 TWHS)
Cetinje Historic Core (1)
Doclea (0)
Old Town of Bar (0)
Stećci – Medieval Tombstones (0)
The Venetian Works of defence between 15th and 17th centuries (0)
’Biogradska gora’ National Park (0)

Morocco (12 TWHS)
Aire du Dragonnier Ajgal (0)
Casablanca, Ville du XXčme sičcle, carrefour d’influences (0)
El Gour (0)
Grotte de Taforalt (0)
Lagune de Khnifiss (0)
Mosquée de Tinmel (1)
Moulay Idriss Zerhoun (2)
Oasis de Figuig (0)
Parc National de Dakhla (0)
Parc naturel de Talassemtane (1)
Taza et la Grande Mosqué (0)
Ville de Lixus (0)

Mozambique (4 TWHS)
Manyikeni and Chibuene (1)
Ponta de Ouro Protected Marine Area (4)
The Quirimbas Archipelago (0)
Vumba Mountain Range (0)

Myanmar (8 TWHS)
Ancient cities of Upper Myanmar : Innwa, Amarapura, Sagaing, Mingun, Mandalay (2)
Badah-lin and associated caves (0)
Bagan Archaeological Area and Monuments (3)
Inle Lake (3)
Mon cities : Bago, Hanthawaddy (3)
Myauk-U Archaeological Area and Monuments (1)
Pyu Cities: Beikthano-Myo, Halin, Tharay- Khit-taya (Sri Ksetra) (1)
Wooden Monasteries of Konbaung Period : Ohn Don, Sala, Pakhangyi, Pakhannge, Legaing, Sagu, Shwe-Kyaung (Mandalay) (2)

Namibia (3 TWHS)
Brandberg National Monument Area (0)
Fishriver Canyon (0)
Welwitschia Plains (0)

Nepal (15 TWHS)
Bhurti Temple Complex of Dailekh (0)
Cave architecture of Muktinath Valley of Mustang (1)
Khokana, the vernacular village and its mustard-oil seed industrial heritage (0)
Medieval Earthern Walled City of Lo Manthang (2)
Medieval Settlement of Kirtipur (1)
Nuwakot Palace Complex (0)
Ram Janaki Temple (1)
Ramagrama, the relic stupa of Lord Buddha (0)
Rishikesh Complex of Ruru Kshetra (0)
Sinja valley (0)
The early medieval architectural complex of Panauti (1)
The medieval palace complex of Gorkha (0)
The Medieval Town of Tansen (0)
Tilaurakot, the archaeological remains of ancient Shakya Kingdom (2)
Vajrayogini and early settlment of sankhu (1)

Netherlands (10 TWHS)
Bonaire Marine Park (0)
Eise Eisinga Planetarium (1)
Frontiers of the Roman Empire (extension) (1)
Island of Saba (1)
Koloniën van Weldadigheid (agricultural pauper colony) (0)
Nieuwe Hollandse Waterlinie (1)
Plantations in West Curaçao (0)
Teylers (0)
Van Nelle Fabriek (Van Nelle Factory) (1)
Voormalige Nazorgkolonie en Sanatorium Zonnestraal (1)

New Zealand (8 TWHS)
Auckland Volcanic Fields (1)
Kahurangi National Park, Farewell Spit and Canaan karst system (0)
Kerikeri Basin historic precinct (1)
Kermadec Islands and Marine reserve (0)
Napier Art Deco historic precinct (0)
Waitangi Treaty Grounds historic precinct (1)
Waters and seabed of Fiordland (Te Moana O Atawhenua) (0)
Whakarua Moutere (North East Islands) (0)

Nicaragua (5 TWHS)
City of Granada and its natural environment (2)
Fortress of the immaculate Conception (1)
The Natural Reserve “Bosawas” (0)
The Natural Reserve “Miskitos Keys” (0)
Volcan Masaya National Park (0)

Niger (18 TWHS)
Gisement de dinosaures du Niger (0)
Itineraires Culturels du Desert du Sahara : Route du sel (0)
L’ensemble des forets protegées de la région d’Agadez (0)
La foret classée, le lac de Madarounfa et les tombeaux des 99 saints (0)
La Reserve Naturelle Nationale de l’Air et du Ténére (0)
La vieille ville de Zinder, quartier de Birni et le Sultanat (2)
Le fleuve Niger, les îles et la vallée (0)
Le site de Lougou (0)
Les mosquées en terre de la région de Tahoua (0)
Mare d’Ounsolo ou N’Solo (0)
Massif de Ternit (0)
Palais du Zarmakoye de Dosso (0)
Parc national du “W” sites archéologiques (0)
Partie nigerienne du lac Tchad (0)
Plateau et Fortin du Djado (0)
Réserve de faune de Galbedji (0)
Site archéologique de Bura (0)
Zone Giraphe (0)

Nigeria (12 TWHS)
Alok Ikom Stone Monoliths (1)
Ancient Kano City Walls and Asociated Sties (2)
Arochkwu Long Juju Slave Rute (Cave Temple Complex) (0)
Benin Iya / Sungbo s Eredo (2)
Gashaki-Gumpti National Park (0)
Kwiambana and/or Ningi (1)
Niger Delta Mangroves (1)
Oban Hills / Korup (1)
Ogbunike Caves (0)
Oke Idanre (Idanre Hill) (22)
Old Oyo (1)
Surame Cultural Landscape (7)

Norway (6 TWHS)
Islands of Jan Mayen and Bouvet as parts of a serial transnational nomination of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge system (0)
Rjukan/Notodden and Odda/Tyssedal Industrial Heritage Sites, Hydro Electrical Powered Heavy Industries with associated U (0)
Svalbard Archipelago (2)
The Laponian Area – Tysfjord, the fjord of Hellemobotn and Rago (0)
The Lofoten islands (0)
VIKING MONUMENTS AND SITES / Vestfold Ship Burials and Hyllestad Quernstone Quarries(0)

Oman (8 TWHS)
al Dimaniyyat Islands Nature Reserve (0)
Al Hallaniyyat Islands Proposed Nature Reserve (0)
Bar al Hakman Proposed Nature Reserve (0)
Prehistoric Settlements in Bisya & Salut (0)
Qalhat (0)
Ras al Had Turtle Reserve and the Heritage Site of Ras al Jinz (0)
Smahan’s Mountain Nature Reserve (0)
The forts of Rostaq and al-Hazm (1)

Pakistan (18 TWHS)
Archaeological Site of Harappa (1)
Archaeological Site of Mehrgarh (0)
Archaeological Site of Ranigat (0)
Archaeological Site of Rehman Dheri (0)
Badshahi Mosque, Lahore (1)
Baltit Fort (0)
Chaukhandi Tombs, Karachi (1)
Hiran Minar and Tank, Sheikhupura (1)
Mansehra Rock Edicts (0)
Port of Banbhore (1)
Rani Kot Fort, Dadu (3)
Shah Jahan Mosque, Thatta (1)
Shahbazgarhi Rock Edicts (1)
Tomb of Bibi Jawindi, Baha’al-Halim and Ustead and the Tomb and Mosque of Jalaluddin Bukhari (1)
Tomb of Hazrat Rukn-e-Alam, Multan (0)
Tomb of Shah Rukn-e-Alam (1)
Tombs of Jahangir, Asif Khan and Akbari (1)
Wazir Khans Mosque, Lahore (2)

Palau (4 TWHS)
Imeong Conservation Area (0)
Ouballang ra Ngebedech (Ngebedech Terraces) (0)
Tet el Bad (Stone Coffin) (0)
Yapease Quarry Sites (0)

Palestine (14 TWHS)
Ancient Jericho: Tell es-Sultan (1)
Anthedon Harbour (0)
El-Bariyah: wilderness with monasteries (1)
Mount Gerizim and the Samaritans (0)
Old town of Hebron al-Khalil & its environs (2)
Old Town of Nablus and its environs (0)
Palestine: Land of olives and vines. Cultural Landscape of Southern Jerusalem, Battir (0)
QUMRAN: Caves and Monastery of the Dead Sea Scrolls (1)
Sebastia (0)
Tell Umm Amer (0)
Throne Villages (0)
Umm Al-Rihan forest (0)
Wadi Gaza Coastal Wetlands (0)
Wadi Natuf and Shuqba Cave (0)

Papua New Guinea (7 TWHS)
Houn Terraces – Stairway to the Past (0)
Kikori River Basin / Great Papuan Plateau (0)
Kokoda Track and Owen Stanley Ranges (1)
Milne Bay Seascape (Pacific Jewels of Marine Biodiversity) (0)
The Sublime Karsts of Papua New Guinea (0)
Trans-Fly Complex (0)
Upper Sepik River Basin (1)

Paraguay (4 TWHS)
Mbaracayú Forest Nature Reserve (0)
Parque Nacional Ybyturuzu (0)
Parque National Tinfunke (0)
Sistema Ferrocarril Pte. Carlos Antonio Lopez (0)

Peru (8 TWHS)
Archaeological Complex of Pachacamac (2)
Chankillo Astronomical Complex (0)
Historic Center of the City of Trujillo (1)
Kuelap Archaeological Complex (1)
Lake Titicaca (2)
Sistema Vial Andino/Qhapaq Nan (0)
The Great Inka Trail: state transportation system originally named “Qhapac Nan” (2)
The Historic Centre of Cajamarca (0)

Philippines (29 TWHS)
Agusan Marsh Wildlife Sanctuary (0)
Angono Triglyphs (2)
Apo Reef Natural Park (1)
Baroque Churches of the Philippines (Extension) (2)
Batanes Protected landscapes and seascapes (1)
Butuan Archeological Sites (0)
Chocolate Hills Natural Monument (2)
Coron Island Natural Biotic Area (0)
El Nido Marine Reserve (1)
Jesuit Churches of the Philippines (0)
Kabayan Mummy Burial Caves (0)
Ligawasan Marsh (0)
Mount Apo and Mount Hamiguitan: Sanctuaries of Endemism in Mindanao (0)
Mount Hamiguitan Range Wildlife Sanctuary (1)
Mt. Iglit-Baco National Park (1)
Mt. Malindang Range Natural Park (1)
Mt. Matutum Protected Landscape (0)
Mt. Pulag National Park (0)
Neolithic Shell Midden Sites in Lal-lo and Gattaran Municipalities (0)
Northern Sierra Madre Natural Park (0)
Paleolithic Archaelogical Sites in Cagayan Valley (0)
Panglao Island, Bohol (0)
Petroglyphs and Petrographs of the Philippines (1)
San Sebastian Church (2)
Spanish Colonial Fortifications of the Philippines (1)
Taal Volcano Protected landscape, Batangas (1)
The Maranao settlement of Tugaya (0)
The Tabon Cave Complex and all of Lipuun Point (1)
Turtle Islands Natural Marine Park (1)

Poland (5 TWHS)
Bialowieza National Park – extension, modification (0)
Gdansk – Town of Memory and Freedom (1)
Tarnowskie Gory Lead-Silver Mine and its Underground Water Management System (0)
The Augustow Canal (Kanal Augustowski) (0)
The Dunejec River Gorge in the Pieniny Mountains (0)

Portugal (11 TWHS)
Algar do Carvao (0)
Arrabida (0)
Forest Park of the Discalced Carmelites, Bucaco (1)
Furna do Enxofre (0)
Historic Centre of Santarem (2)
ICNITOS de Dinossaurios (0)
Ilhas Selvagens (Selvagens Islands) (0)
Mafra Palace, Convent and Royal Hunting Park (0)
Pombaline “Baixa” or Downtown of Lisbon (2)
The Southwest Coast (1)
Town of Marvao and the craggy mountain on which it is located (1)

Qatar (1 TWHS)
Khor Al-Adaid natural reserve (1)

Romania (14 TWHS)
Codrul secular Slatiora (foret seculaire) (0)
Eglises byzantines et post-byzantines de Curtea de Arges (0)
L’église de Densus (1)
L’église des Trois Hierarques de Iassy (1)
L’ensemble monumental de Tirgu Jiu (0)
L’ensemble rupestre de Basarabi (0)
Le Monastčre de Neamt (0)
Le noyau historique de la ville d’Alba Julia (0)
Les “coules” de Petite Valachie (0)
Massif du Retezat (0)
Pietrosul Rodnei (sommet de montagne) (0)
Sinpetru (site paleontologique) (0)
The Historic Centre of Sibiu and its Ensemble of Squares (0)
The old villages of Hollókő and Rimetea and their surroundings (0)

Russia (26 TWHS)
Architectural and Park Ensemble “Tsar’s Country Estate Izmaylovo” (0)
Bashkir Ural (0)
Bikin River Valley (Extension of the “Central Sikhote-Alin”) (0)
Cathedral of Christ the Saviour (1)
Centre historique d’Irkoutsk (2)
Church of Prince Dimitri “On Blood” (0)
Daurian Steppes (Daursky State Biosphere Reserve) (0)
Ensemble of the Astrakhan Kremlin (1)
Great Pskov (1)
Historic Center of the Yenisseisk (0)
Historical and Cultural Jeyrakh-Assa Reservation (0)
Krasnoyarsk Stolby (2)
Magadansky State Nature Reserve (1)
Petroglyphs of Sikachi-Alyan (0)
Railway Bridge Over Yenissey River (1)
Rostov Kremlin (0)
Russian Kremlins (0)
The archeological site of Tanais (0)
The architectural and historical complex “Shelter of count N.P. Cheremetev” (0)
The Bolgar historical-architectural complex (0)
The Commander Islands (Comandorsky State Nature Reserve) (0)
The ensemble of former city building of Sviyazhsk (0)
The Great Vasyugan Mire (0)
The Ilmensky mountains (0)
The National Park of Vodlozero (0)
The Valamo archipelago (0)

Rwanda (1 TWHS)
Sites mémoriaux du génocide : Nyamata, Murambi, Bisesero et Gisozi (1)

Saint Kitts and Nevis (2 TWHS)
City of Charlestown (1)
Historic zone of Basseterre (1)

Samoa (2 TWHS)
Fagaloa Bay – Uafato Tiavea Conservation Zone (0)
Manono, Apolima and Nuulopa Cultural Landscape (0)

Saudi Arabia (2 TWHS)
Historical Area of Jeddah (0)
Rock Drawings in the Hail Region (0)

Senegal (8 TWHS)
Architecture rurale de Basse-Casamance : Les cases ŕ impluvium du royaume Bandial (0)
L’Aeropostale (0)
L’Ile de Carabane (0)
Le Lac Rose (0)
Le Vieux Rufisque (0)
Les Escales du Fleuve Sénégal (0)
Les tumulus de Cekeen (0)
Parc National des Iles de la Madeleine (0)

Serbia (11 TWHS)
Caricin Grad – Iustiniana Prima, archaeological site (0)
Djerdap National Park (0)
Fortified Manasija Monastery (0)
Historical place of Bac and its Surroundings (0)
Mt. Sara National Park (0)
Negotinske Pivnice (0)
Smederevo Fortress (2)
Stecak’s – Medieval Tombstones (0)
The Deliblato Sands Special Natural Reserve (0)
The Djavolja Varos (Devil’s Town) Natural Landmark (0)
The Tara National Park with the Drina River Canyon (0)

Seychelles (2 TWHS)
Mission Ruins of Venn’s Town (0)
Silhouette Island (0)

Sierra Leone (6 TWHS)
Bunce Island (0)
Gola Rainforest National Park (0)
Old Fourah Bay College Building (0)
The Gateway to the Old King’s Yards (0)
Tiwai Island Wildlife Sanctuary (0)
Western Area Peninsula National Park (0)

Singapore (1 TWHS)
Singapore Botanic Gardens (1)

Slovakia (14 TWHS)
Extension of the location of Spišský hrad and its associated cultural monuments with Levoča and the work of Master Paul (1)
Fungal Flora of Bukovské Hills (0)
Gemer and Abov churches with the medieval mural paintings (0)
Geyser in Herlany (0)
Karst Valleys of Slovakia (0)
Limes Romanus – The Roman antique monuments on the Middle Danube (0)
Natural and Cultural Landscape of Danube Region (0)
Natural Reserves of Tatras Mountain (1)
Original Meadow – Pasture Sites of Slovakia (0)
Sites of Great Moravia: Slavonic Fortified Settlement at Mikulcice – Church of St.Margaret at Kopcani (2)
System of Fortifications at the Confluence of the Rivers Danube and Váh in Komárno – Komárom (0)
The concept of the lenticular historical town core of Kosice City (1)
The Memorial of Chatam Sófer (0)
Tokaj Wine Region (0)

Slovenia (3 TWHS)
Classic Karst (0)
Franja Partisan Hospital (0)
Fuzina Hills in Bohinj (0)

Solomon Islands (2 TWHS)
Marovo – Tetepare Complex (0)
Tropical Rainforest Heritage of Solomon Islands (0)

South Africa (13 TWHS)
Alexandria Coastal Dunefield (0)
Cape Floral Region Protected Areas (0)
Kimberley Mines and Associated Early Industries (0)
Liberation Heritage Route (0)
Pilgrim’s Rest Reduction Works Industrial Heritage Site (1)
Pleistocene occupation sites of Klasies River, Border Cave, Wonderwerk Cave and comparable sites (0)
Succulent Karoo Protected Areas (0)
The !Xam Khomani Heartland (0)
The Barberton Mountain Land, Barberton Greenstone Belt or Makhonjwa Mountains (0)
The Cape Arc of Meridian (0)
The Cape Winelands Cultural Landscape (0)
The Namaqualand Copper Mining Landscape (0)
The Prince Edward Islands (0)

Spain (26 TWHS)
Ancares – Somiedo (0)
Antequera Dolmen Sites (0)
Bulwarked Frontier Fortifications (1)
Cultural Itinerary of Francis Xavier (1)
Dinosaur Ichnite Sites of the Iberian Peninsula (2)
El Ferrol of the Illustration Historical Heritage (1)
Greek Archaeological ensemble in Empúries, l’Escala, Girona (0)
Historic City-Centre of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (2)
Jaén Cathedral (extension of the Renaissance Monumental Ensembles of Úbeda and Baeza)(1)
La Rioja and Rioja Alavesa Vine and Wine Cultural Landscape (0)
Loarre Castle (2)
Mediterranean Wind Mills (1)
Mesta Livestock trails (1)
Mining Historical Heritage (0)
Plasencia – Monfragüe – Trujillo : Paysage méditerranéen (0)
Roman Ways. Itineraries of the Roman Empire (1)
Romanesque Cultural Enclave in the North of Castile-Leon and the South of Cantabria (1)
Talayotic Culture of Minorca (0)
The Architecture of Dry Built Stone (0)
The Mediterranean Facet of the Pyrenees (France-Spain) (1)
The Monastery of San Lorenzo de El Escorial and Natural Surroundings (1)
The Northern or Primitive Route (extension of the Route of Santiago de Compostella) (1)
The Ribeira Sacra, Lugo and Orense (0)
The Silver Route (1)
Valle Salado de Ańana (0)
Wine and Vineyard Cultural Itinerary through Mediterranean Towns (1)

Sri Lanka (2 TWHS)
Seruwila Mangala Raja Maha Vihara (0)
Seruwila to Sri Pada (Sacred Foot Print Shrine), Ancient pilgrim route along the Mahaweli river in Sri Lanka (1)

St. Vincent and the Grenadines (3 TWHS)
Grenadines Island Group (1)
Rock Art of St. Vincent and the Grenadines (0)
The La Soufričre National Park (0)

Sudan (6 TWHS)
Dinder National Park (2)
Kerma (0)
Old Dongola (0)
Sanganeb National Park (0)
Suakin (0)
Wadi Howar National Park (0)

Suriname (1 TWHS)
The settlement of Joden Savanne and Cassipora cemetery (0)

Swaziland (1 TWHS)
Ngwenya Mines (0)

Sweden (1 TWHS)
The Rise of Systematic Biology (0)

Switzerland (1 TWHS)
Oeuvre urbaine et architecturale de Le Corbusier (1)

Syria (12 TWHS)
Apamee (Afamia) (0)
Dura Europos (0)
Ebla (Tell Mardikh) (0)
L’Ile d’Arwad (0)
Maaloula (0)
Mari & Europos-Dura sites of Euphrates Valley (0)
Mari (Tell Hariri) (0)
Noréas de Hama (0)
Raqqa-Rŕfiqa : la cité abbasside (0)
Tartus: la cité-Citadelle des Crois (0)
Ugrarit (Tell Shamra) (0)
Un Chateau du désert: Qasr al-Hayr ach- Charqi (0)

Tajikistan (16 TWHS)
Buddhistic cloister of Ajina-Tepa (0)
Fann mountains (0)
Mausoleum of “Amir Khamza Khasti Podshoh” (0)
Mausoleum of “Hodja Nashron” (0)
Mausoleum of “Khoja Mashkhad” (0)
Mausoleum of “Mukhammad Bashoro” (0)
Palace of the governor of Khulbuk (0)
Silk Roads Sites in Tajikistan (0)
State reserve Dashti Djum (0)
The Site of Ancient Town of Baitudasht IV (0)
The Site of Ancient Town of Pyanjekent (1)
The Site of Ancient Town of Shahristan (Kahkakha) (0)
The Site of Ancient Town of Takhti-Sangin (0)
Tigrovaya Balka (0)
Zakaznik Kusavlisay (0)
Zorkul State Reserve (0)

Tanzania (6 TWHS)
Eastern Arc Mountains Forests of Tanzania (0)
Gombe National Park (0)
Jozani – Chwaka Bay Conservation Area (1)
Kondoa Irangi Rock Paintings (0)
Oldonyo Murwak (0)
The Central Slave and Ivory Trade Route (1)

Thailand (4 TWHS)
Kaeng Krachan Forest Complex (KKFC) (1)
Phimai, its Cultural Route and the Associated Temples of Phanomroong and Muangtam (1)
Phuphrabat Historical Park (0)
Wat Phra Mahathat Woramahawihan, Nakhon Si Thammarat (0)

Togo (7 TWHS)
Agglomération Aného-Glidji (0)
La réserve de faune d’Alédjo (0)
Les Greniers des Grottes de Nok et de Mamproug (0)
Les palais des gouverneurs (0)
Parc national de Fazao Mafakassa (0)
Parc national de la K?ran et la r?serve de faune Oti-Mandouri (0)
Woold Hom (0)

Tonga (2 TWHS)
Lapita Pottery Archaeological Sites (0)
The Ancient Capitals of the Kingdom of Tonga (1)

Trinidad and Tobago (3 TWHS)
Banwari Trace Archaeological Site (0)
La Brea Pitch Lake (0)
Tobago Main Ridge Forest Reserve (0)

Tunisia (10 TWHS)
Chott El Jerid (0)
Frontičres de l’Empire romain : Limes du Sud tunisien (0)
île de Djerba (0)
Le complexe hydraulique romain de Zaghouan-Carthage (0)
Les carričres antiques de marbre numidique de Chimtou (0)
Les Mausolées Royaux de Numidie, de la Maurétanie et les monuments funéraires pré-islamiques (0)
Médina de Sfax (0)
Oasis de Gab (0)
Parc National d’El Feija (0)
Parc National de Bouhedma (0)

Turkey (41 TWHS)
Aizanoi Antique City (1)
Alahan Monastery (1)
Alanya (0)
Ancient Cities of Lycian Civilization (0)
Archaeological Site of Aphrodisias (0)
Archaeological site of Laodikeia (0)
Archaeological Site of Perge (0)
Archaeological Site of Sagalassos (0)
Archeological Site of Zeugma (1)
Bergama (0)
Bursa and Cumalikizik Early Ottoman urban and rural settlements (0)
Ephesus (2)
Esrefoglu Mosque (0)
Gordion (0)
Güllük Dagi-Termessos National Park (0)
Haci Bektas Veli Complex (0)
Harran and Sanliurfa (0)
Hatay, St. Pierre Church (0)
Historic City of Ani (1)
Historic Town of Birgi (0)
Historical Monuments of Niđde (0)
Ishak Pasha Palace (1)
Karain Cave (0)
Kekova (0)
Konya-A capital of Seljuk Civilization (1)
Lake Tuz Special Environmental Protection Area (SEPA) (0)
Mamure Castle (0)
Mardin Cultural Landscape (0)
Mausoleum and Sacred area of Hecatomnus (0)
Medieval City of Beçin (0)
Odunpazari Historical Urban Site (0)
Seljuk Caravanserais on the route from Denizli to Dogubeyazit (0)
St. Nicholas Church (1)
St. Paul Church, St. Pauls Well and surrounding historic quarters (0)
Sümela Monastery (The Monastery of Virgin Mary) (0)
The Ancient City of Sardis and the Lydian Tumuli of Bin Tepe (0)
The Archaeological Site of Göbeklitepe (1)
The Citadel and the Walls of Diyarbakir (1)
The Tombstones of Ahlat the Urartian and Ottoman citadel (0)
Trading Posts and Fortifications on Genoese Trade Routes from the Mediterranean to the Black Sea (1)
Yesemek Quarry and Sculpture Workshop (0)

Turkmenistan (8 TWHS)
Amudarya State Nature Reserve (0)
Badhyz State Nature Reserve (0)
Dehistan / Mishrian (0)
Dinosaurs and Caves of Koytendag (0)
Hazar State Nature Reserve (0)
Repetek Biosphere State Reserve (0)
Silk Roads Sites in Turkmenistan (1)
Syunt Hasardag State Nature Reserve (0)

UAE (7 TWHS)
Al Bidya Mosque (0)
Ed-Dur Site (0)
Heart of Sharjah (0)
Khor Dubai (1)
Settlement and Cementery of Umm an-Nar Island (0)
Sir Bu Nair Island (0)
The Cultural Landscape of the Central Region in the Emirate of Sharjah (0)

Uganda (5 TWHS)
Bigo bya Mugyenyi (0)
Kibiro (Salt producing village) (0)
Mgahinga Gorilla National Park (MGNP) (0)
Ntusi (man-made mounds and Basin) (0)
Nyero Rockpaintings (0)

UK (13 TWHS)
Chatham Dockyard and its Defences (0)
Creswell Crags (0)
Darwin’s Landscape Laboratory (1)
England’s Lake District (0)
Flow Country (0)
Forth Bridge (0)
Gorham’s Cave Complex (0)
Island of St Helena (1)
Jodrell Bank Observatory (0)
Mousa, Old Scatness and Jarlshof: the Zenith of Iron Age Shetland (0)
Slate Industry of North Wales (0)
The Twin Monastery of Wearmouth Jarrow (2)
Turks and Caicos Islands (1)

Ukraine (15 TWHS)
Archaeological Site “Stone Tomb” (0)
Astronomical Observatories of Ukraine (1)
Bagçesaray Palace of the Crimean Khans (1)
Complex of the Sudak Fortress Monuments of the 6th – 16th c. (0)
Cultural Landscape of Canyon in Kamenets-Podilsk (1)
Cultural Landscape of “Cave Towns” of the Crimean Gothia (0)
Dendrological Park “Sofijivka” (0)
Historic Center of the Port City of Odessa (1)
Historic Centre of Tchernigov, 9th -13th centuries (0)
Kyiv: Saint Sophia Cathedral with Related Monastic Buildings, St. Cyril’s and St. Andrew’s Churches, Kyiv-Pechersk Lavra (0)
Mykolayiv Astronomical Observatory (0)
National Steppe Biosphere Reserve “Askaniya Nowa” (0)
Tarass Shevtchenko Tomb and State Historical and Natural Museum – Reserve (0)
The historical surroundings of Crimean Khans’ capital in Bakhchysarai (0)
Trading Posts and Fortifications on Genoese Trade Routes. From the Mediterranean to the Black Sea (0)

Uruguay (7 TWHS)
Architecture Moderne du XX sičcle de la Ville de Montevideo (1)
Chamangá: A Rock Paintings Area (1)
Insular area and bay of Colonia del Sacramento (0)
La Rambla (promenade maritime) de la Cité de Montévideo (2)
L’œuvre de l’ingénieur Eladio Dieste (0)
Palacio Legislativo (0)
Paysage Culturel et Industriel Fray Bentos (0)

USA (13 TWHS)
Civil Rights Movement Sites (0)
Dayton Aviation Sites (1)
Fagatele Bay National Marine Sanctuary (0)
Frank Lloyd Wright Buildings (6)
Hopewell Ceremonial Earthworks (6)
Mount Vernon (2)
Okefenokee National Wildlife Refuge (0)
Petrified Forest National Park (1)
Poverty Point State Historic Site (2)
San Antonio Franciscan Missions (0)
Serpent Mound (7)
Thomas Jefferson Buildings (1)
White Sands National Monument (0)

Uzbekistan (31 TWHS)
Abdulkhan Bandi Dam (0)
Ahsiket (1)
Ak Astana-baba (mausoleum) (0)
Ancient Pap (0)
Ancient Termiz (0)
Andijon (0)
Arab-Ata Mausoleum (0)
Bahoutdin Architectural Complex (0)
Boysun (0)
Chashma-Ayub Mausoleum (0)
Chor-Bakr (0)
Complex of Sheikh Mukhtar-Vali (mausoleum) (0)
Desert Castles of Ancient Khorezm (0)
Gissar Mountains (0)
Historic Center of Qoqon (1)
Kanka (0)
Khanbandi (dam) (0)
Khazarasp (0)
Minaret in Vobkent (0)
Mir-Sayid Bakhrom Mausoleum (0)
Mountains of the Western Tien Shan (Transboundary nomination of Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan) “Chatkal Sate Biosph (0)
Poykent (0)
Rabati Malik Caravanserai (0)
Sarmishsay (0)
Shahruhiya (0)
Shokhimardon (0)
Silk Roads Sites in Uzbekistan (1)
Siypantosh Rock Paintings (0)
Varakhsha (0)
Zaamin Mountains (0)
Zarautsoy Rock Paintings (0)

Vanuatu (5 TWHS)
Lake Letas (0)
The Nowon and Votwos of Ureparapara (0)
The President Coolidge (0)
Vatthe Conservation Area (0)
Yalo, Apialo and the sacred geography of Northwest Malakula (0)

Venezuela (3 TWHS)
City of “La Guaira” (0)
Ciudad Bolivar in the narrowness of the Orinoco River (0)
Hacienda Chuao (Chuao Plantation) (1)

Vietnam (7 TWHS)
Ba Be Lake (0)
Cat Ba Archipelago (0)
Cat Tien National Park (0)
Con Moong Cave (0)
Huong Son Complex of Natural Beauty and Historical Monuments (0)
The Area of Old Carved Stone in Sapa (0)
Trang An Scenic Landscape Complex (0)

Yemen (10 TWHS)
Archaeological site of Marib (0)
Balhaf/Burum coastal area (0)
Historic city of Saada (0)
Jabal Bura (0)
Jabal Haraz (0)
Jibla and its surroundings (0)
Sharma/Jethmun coastal area (0)
The Hawf Area (0)
The Historic City of Thula (0)
The Madrasa Amiriya of Rada (0)

Zambia (7 TWHS)
Chirundu Fossil Forest (0)
Dag Hammarskjoeld Memorial (Crash site) (1)
Kalambo Falls (0)
Kalambo falls archaeological site (0)
Mwela Rock Paintings (2)
The Barotse Cultural Landscape (1)
Zambezi Source (0)


Watch the video: Map of Computer Science (June 2022).


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