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James Pope was born in Jonesboro, Louisiana, on 31st March, 1884. He graduated from the University of Chicago in 1909. He was admitted to the bar and became a lawyer at Boise, Idaho. Over the next few years he served as deputy collector of internal revenue (1916), city attorney (1916-17), a member of the board of education (1924-29) and mayor of Boise (1929-33).
A member of the Democratic Party, Pope was elected to the Senate in 1932. On 8th February, 1934, Gerald Nye submitted a Senate Resolution calling for an investigation of the munitions industry by the Senate Foreign Relations Committee under Key Pittman of Nevada. Pittman disliked the idea and the resolution was referred to the Military Affairs Committee. It was eventually combined with one introduced earlier by Arthur H. Vandenberg.
The Military Affairs Committee accepted the proposal and as well as Nye and Vandenberg, the Munitions Investigating Committee included Pope, Homer T. Bone of Washington, Joel B. Clark of Missouri, Walter F. George of Georgia and W. Warren Barbour of New Jersey. John T. Flynn, a writer with the New Republic magazine, was appointed as an advisor and Alger Hiss as the committee's legal assistant.
Public hearings before the Munitions Investigating Committee began on 4th September, 1934. In the reports published by the committee it was claimed that there was a strong link between the American government's decision to enter the First World War and the lobbying of the the munitions industry. The committee was also highly critical of the nation's bankers. In a speech in 1936 Nye argued that "the record of facts makes it altogether fair to say that these bankers were in the heart and center of a system that made our going to war inevitable".
Pope was an unsuccessful candidate for renomination in 1938. The following year President Franklin D. Roosevelt appointed Pope as a director of the Tennessee Valley Authority. He held the post until 1951. James Pope died on 23rd January, 1966.
It would not be fair to say that the House of Morgan took us to war to save their investment in the Allies, but the record of facts makes it altogether fair to say that these bankers were in the heart and center of a system that made our going to war inevitable. We started in 1914 with a neutrality policy which permitted the sale of arms and munitions to belligerents, but which forbad loans to belligerents. Then, in the name of our own business welfare. President Wilson permitted the policy to be stretched to the extent of permitting the house of Morgan to supply the credit needs of the Allies. After this error of neutrality, the road to war was paved and greased for us.
Almost without exception, the American munitions companies investigated have at times resorted to such unusual approaches, questionable favors and commissions, and methods of 'doing the needful' as to constitute, in effect,
a form of bribery of foreign governmental officials or of their close friends in order to secure business. These business methods carried within themselves the seeds of disturbance to the peace and stability of those nations in which they
While the evidence before this committee does not show that wars have been started solely because of the activities of munitions makers and their agents, it is also true that wars rarely have one single cause, and the committee finds it to be against the peace of the world for selfishly interested organizations to be left free to goad and frighten nations into military activity.
The Committee wishes to point out most definitely that its study of events resulting from the then existing neutrality legislation, or the lack of it, is in no way a criticism, direct or implied, of the sincere devotion of the then President, Woodrow Wilson, to the high causes of peace and democracy. Like other leaders in government, business and finance, he had watched the growth of militarism in the pre-war years. Militarism meant the alliance of the military with powerful economic groups to secure appropriations on the one hand for a constantly increasing military and naval establishment, and on the other hand, the constant threat of the use of that swollen military establishment in behalf of the economic interests at home and abroad of the industrialists supporting it. President Wilson was personally impelled by the highest motives and the most profound convictions as to the justice of the cause of our country and was devoted to peace. He was caught up in a situation created largely by the profit-making interests in the United States, and such interests spread to nearly everybody in the country. It seemed necessary to the prosperity of our people that their markets in Europe remain unimpaired. President Wilson, himself, stated that he realized that the economic rivalries of European nations had played their part in bringing on the war in 1914.
Loans extended to the Allies in 1915 and 1916, led to a very considerable war boom and inflation. This boom extended beyond munitions to auxiliary supplies and equipment as well as to agricultural products. The nature of such a war-boom inflation is that, like all inflations, an administration is almost powerless to check it, once the movement is well started. Our foreign policy then is seriously affected by it, even to the extent of making impossible the alteration of our foreign policy in such a way as to protect our neutral rights.
No member of the Munitions Committee to my knowledge has ever contended that it was munitions makers who took us to war. But that committee and its members have said again and again, that it was war trade and the war boom, shared in by many more than munitions makers, that played the primary part in moving the United States into a war.
Second Battle of Bull Run
The Second Battle of Bull Run (Manassas) proved to be the deciding battle in the Civil War campaign waged between Union and Confederate armies in northern Virginia in 1862. As a large Union force commanded by John Pope waited for George McClellan’s Army of the Potomac in anticipation of a combined offensive, Confederate General Robert E. Lee decided to strike first. Lee sent half of his Army of Northern Virginia to hit the Federal supply base at Manassas. Led by Stonewall Jackson, hero of the First Battle of Bull Run (Manassas) 13 months earlier, the rebels seized supplies and burned the depot, then established hidden positions in the woods. On August 29, Pope’s Federals clashed with Jackson’s men, who held their ground with heavy losses on both sides. The following day, after the rest of Lee’s army arrived, 28,000 rebels led by James Longstreet launched a counterattack, forcing Pope to withdraw his battered army toward Washington that night.
James Pope-Hennessy CVO was an Anglo-Irish biographer and travel writer.
Largely owing to his mother&aposs influence, he decided to become a writer and left Oxford in 1937 without taking a degree. He went to work for the Catholic publishers Sheed & Ward as an editorial assistant. While working at the company&aposs offices, in Paternoster Row in London, he worked on his first book, London Fabric (1939), for which he was awarded the Hawthornden Prize. During this period, he was involved in a circle of notable literary figures including Harold Nicolson, Raymond Mortimer and James Lees-Milne. James Pope-Hennessy CVO was an Anglo-Irish biographer and travel writer.
Largely owing to his mother's influence, he decided to become a writer and left Oxford in 1937 without taking a degree. He went to work for the Catholic publishers Sheed & Ward as an editorial assistant. While working at the company's offices, in Paternoster Row in London, he worked on his first book, London Fabric (1939), for which he was awarded the Hawthornden Prize. During this period, he was involved in a circle of notable literary figures including Harold Nicolson, Raymond Mortimer and James Lees-Milne. . more
James P. Pope - History
James White - the Protestant Pope of the New Vatican Versions
James White is not the devil incarnate, nor is he a prophet of God, but he may very well be the equivalent of the Protestant Pope of the new Vatican Versions.
I have read James White's book, The King James Only Controversy, several times over and have dealt personally with him both on the internet and twice on Christian radio. I believe he has a lot of good things to say when it comes to the cults, and I believe he is a true, born again, redeemed by the blood of the Lamb Christian, but when it comes to the Bible version issue, he is completely on the wrong side.
James White SAYS he believes The Bible IS the infallible words of God. I asked him this question personally on his radio program. But when I asked Mr. White where we can see a copy of this infallible Bible he PROFESSES to believe in, he immediately changes the subject. He will never tell you. The simple fact is this - James White is lying when he says he believes The Bible IS the infallible words of God.
When James White says "I believe the Bible IS the infallible words of God" he is not referring to a real, tangible, in print, hold it in your hands and read, Book at all. He is referring to a mythical, imaginary, hypothetical, invisible and non-existent, phantom "bible" that he has never seen, does not have and certainly cannot give to anybody else.
In other words, he is professing faith in a Fantasy. And then he thinks we Bible believers who have a real Bible printed on paper between two covers we can actually hold in our hands and give to anybody that asks to see it are "a cult", and even heretics.
In his way of thinking, those of us who confess a faith in a tangible, preserved, and inerrant Bible are "heretics" and "cultic", but people like him who lie when they say they believe the Bible IS (as though it really exists) the infallible words of God" are somehow "Orthodox".
The Vatican Version "Mystery, Babylon the Great, The Mother of Harlots and Abominations of the Earth..is become the habitation of devils, and the hold of every foul spirit. and the inhabitants of the earth have been made drunk with the wine of her fornication. Come out of her, my people, that ye be not partakers of her sins" Revelation 17:2-5 18:2-4
James White's Bible Blunders Book by Will Kinney
See "A Reasoned Response to the James White "interview" on his Dividing Line Radio Program"
See also "Answering James White's Question - Which King James Version is the infallible words of God?"
Mr. White used to work for the New American Standard Version, at least in a part time position, but now it seems his favorite flavor of the month Bible version is the ESV, the revision of the revision of the liberal RSV. But what Mr. White may not be aware of is the undeniable FACT that all these modern versions like the ESV, NIV, NASB, NET and the brand new Common English Version are all the new "Vatican Versions".
You may think this charge is utterly ridiculous. But the proof is undeniable and easily verified. All anyone has to do to confirm the truth of this is to simply read what their own editors of the UBS (United Bible Society) and Nestle-Aland ever changing critical text have written in their own Greek critical text.
Then simply compare the TEXTS to see the thousands of omissions and the scores of places where versions like the ESV, NIV, NASB, NET, Jehovah Witness New World Translation and the modern Catholic bible versions like the St. Joseph New American Bible and the New Jerusalem bible all reject thousands of words from the Reformation New Testament and numerous clear Hebrew readings and add hundreds of words to the inspired Hebrew writings in the Old Testament.
See Undeniable Proof the ESV, NIV, NASB, NET etc. are the new "Catholic" bibles.
There you will find the complete articles, both parts One and Two, and you can see for yourself in black and white that the New Testament and Old Testament texts of the modern Catholic bible versions and the ESV, NIV, NASB, NET are virtually identical in the thousands of words that they all omit and change.
Here is part of what you will find when you read this article. Do you know why the UBS (United Bible Society) Greek texts are the basis for all these new versions? It's because Catholics and Evangelicals were united to produce this text. One of the 5 chief editors was the New Age Jesuit Cardinal Carlos Martini, who believed god was in all men and in all religions. Just open a copy of the UBS New Testament Greek and turn to the first page. There you will see a list of the 5 chief editors who put this abomination together. The 4th name on the list, right before the inerrancy denying Bruce Metzger, is Carlo M. Martini. In his book "In the Thick of His Ministry" Cardinal Martini writes: ?The deification which is the aim of all religious life takes place. During a recent trip to India I was struck by the yearning for the divine that pervades the whole of Hindu culture. It gives rise to extraordinary religious forms and extremely meaningful prayers. I wondered: What is authentic in this longing to fuse with the divine dominating the spirituality of hundreds of millions of human beings, so that they bear hardship, privation, exhausting pilgrimages, in search of this ecstasy?" (In The Thick Of His Ministry, Carlo M. Martini, page 42.)
The Jesuit Cardinal Martini served on the editorial committee for the United Bible Societies' 2nd, 3rd and 4th editions, and he is still listed on the opening page of the latest Nestle-Aland 28th edition critical text. These are the "bibles" most modern Christians are using today when they pick up the ESV, NIV, NASB, NET or modern Catholic "bibles".
In 1965, Pope Paul VI authorized the publication of a new Latin Vulgate, with the Latin text conformed to the United Bible Societies Greek New Testament (Michael de Semlyen, All Roads Lead to Rome, p. 201). In 1987 a formal agreement was made between the Roman Catholic Church and the United Bible Societies that the critical Greek New Testament will be used for all future translations, both Catholic and Protestant (Guidelines for International Cooperation in Translating the Bible, Rome, 1987, p. 5). Most of the translations produced by the United Bible Societies are "interconfessional," meaning they have Roman Catholic participation and backing."
It is interesting to note that the latest United Bible Societies Text, descended from the Westcott and Hort family, boasts, "the new text is a reality, and as the text distributed by the United Bible Societies and by the corresponding office of the Roman Catholic Church it has rapidly become the commonly accepted text for research and study in universities and church." - Kurt Aland and Barbara Aland, The Text of the New Testament (Grand Rapids: Wm B Eerdmans, 1995), 35.
I have a copy of the Nestle-Aland Novum Testamentum Graece 27th edition right here in front of me. It is the same Greek text as the UBS (United Bible Society) 4th edition. These are the Greek readings and texts that are followed by such modern versions as the ESV, NIV, NASB, Holman Standard AND the new Catholic versions like the St. Joseph New American Bible 1970 and the New Jerusalem bible 1985.
If you have a copy of the Nestle-Aland 27th edition, open the book and read what they tell us in their own words on page 45 of the Introduction. Here these critical Greek text editors tell us about how the Greek New Testament (GNT, now known as the UBS) and the Nestle-Aland Novum Testamentum Graece grew together and shared the same basic text.
In the last paragraph on page 45 we read these words: "The text shared by these two editions was adopted internationally by Bible Societies, and FOLLOWING AN AGREEMENT BETWEEN THE VATICAN AND THE UNITIED BIBLE SOCIETIES IT HAS SERVED AS THE BASIS FOR THE NEW TRANSLATIONS AND FOR REVISIONS MADE UNDER THEIR SUPERVISION. This marks a significant step with regard to interconfessional relationships. It should naturally be understood that this text is a working text: it is not to be considered as definitive, but as a stimulus to further efforts toward defining and verifying the text of the New Testament."
There it is folks, in their own words. They openly admit that this text is the result of an agreement between the Vatican and the UBS and that the text itself is not "definitive" - it can change, as it already has and will do so in the future, and is not the infallible words of God but merely "a stimulus to further efforts". And this is the type of "infallible Bible" men like James White are promoting.
As I previously said, I have read James White's book several times and have written several articles dealing with the examples of alleged "errors" he claims to have found in the King James Bible. James White is a smooth and fast talker and he has a lot of experience debating people. However upon further investigation and study, I have found much of his apparent "scholarship" to be often not true and sometimes even shoddy.
I will give you a couple of examples, but you can find many more in "James White - blind scholar" In that particular article I deal with a few of the alleged "problems" James thinks he has found in the King James Bible and I give a link to an online conversation James and I had several years ago where you can see him interact with me on a person to person level. I think it is quite revealing to see where James White REALLY stands on the issue of whether or not there exists such a thing as an inerrant Bible or not. Here is the link to that article.
One of many examples of James White's hypocrisy -
In his book, The King James Only Controversy, chapter Nine, which is titled "Problems in the KJV", on page 231 Mr. James White states: "Jack Lewis notes that the KJV is also well known for the large variety of ways in which it will translate the same word. Now certainly there are many times when one will wish to use synonyms to translate particular terms, and context is vitally important in determining the actual meaning of a word, but the KJV goes beyond the bounds a number of times."
He continues: "For example, the Hebrew term for "word" or "thing" is rendered by EIGHTY FOUR different English words in the KJV! Another term, "to turn back" is rendered in one particular grammatical form by SIXTY different English words! Those who have attempted to follow the usage of a particular Hebrew or Greek term through the AV know how difficult such a task can be, and the inconsistency of the KJV in translating terms only makes the job that much harder." (End of quote.)
Most people who read this in Mr. White's book would think something like: "Oh, that nasty KJV. What a lousy translation it is. How unscholarly! Why would anybody want to use that?"
Most people would never take the time to verify if there is any validity to what Mr. White quotes from a certain Jack Lewis here they would just accept his "scholarly" statements as facts.
James White knows both Hebrew and Greek and professes to be an expert in textual matters. He either didn't check the validity of the claims of Jack Lewis, or he is deliberately misrepresenting the facts to bolster his attacks on God's preserved words in the King James Bible. In either case, his hypocrisy is simply inexcusable.
The Hebrew word for the English "word" or "thing" is # 1697 Dabar. I only counted 78 different meanings found in the King James Bible, but I'll give Mr. White the benefit of the doubt and let him have his 84.
A simple look at the complete NASB concordance shows that the NASB has translated this single word Dabar in at least NINETY THREE very different ways while the NIV has over 200 different English meanings for this single Hebrew word.
Among the 94 different English words the NASB uses to translate this single Hebrew word are: account, act, advice, affair, agreement, amount, annals, answer, anything, asked, because, business, case, cause, charge, Chronicles, claims, commandment, compliments, concerned, conclusion, conditions, conduct, conferred, consultation, conversation, counsel, custom, dealings, decree, deed, defect, desires, dispute, doings, duty, edict, eloquent, event, fulfillment, harm, idea, instructed, manner, matter, message, nothing, oath, obligations, one, order, parts, pertains, plan, plot, portion, promise, proposal, proven, purpose, question, ration, reason, records, regard, reports, request, required, rule, said, same thing, saying, so much, some, something, songs, speaks, speech, talk, task, theme, thing, this, thoughts, threats, thus, told, trouble, verdict, way, what, whatever, word and work.
As I said, the NIV has over twice this amount of different meanings - well over 200 - as compared to the KJB's 84.
The second word mentioned by Mr. White is "to turn back" and it is # 7725 Shoov or Shub, and in this case Mr. White is correct in that the King James Bible does translate it some 60 different ways.
However what James forgot to mention is that his favorite NASB has translated this same single Hebrew word at least 104 different ways, while the NIV again has over 200 different meanings!
For example, that second word # 7725 shoov or shub. It is used some 1,200 times or more. The KJB has about 60 different meanings including "returned, gone back, come again, turn away, go home, certainly, to cease, go back, again, to reward, convert, restore, restorer, recover, bethink, bring back, withdraw, deliver again, recompense, in any case, fetch home again, requiting, to bring again, to answer, restore, to deliver, to give again, to say nay, to refresh, to render, to recompense, to draw back and to relieve."
But the NIV translates this word as "to return, turn, bring back, go back, again, restore, turn away, repent, give back, recover, answer, bring, change, go, refuse, relent, reward, take, withdrew, regain, start back, stop, brought, come, give, keep, left, oppose, to pay, rebuilt, reject, reply, repulse, restrain, retreat, revert, revoke, rewards, sent, take vengeance, turn around, withdraw, again be used, again give allegiance, another, arrived, break, bring in, broke off, brought down, call to mind, changed, changed mind, continually, cover up, depart, did, dole out, drew back, dwell, escaping, flow back, forced to restore, gave, get back, give up, go on, hold back, keep themselves alive, keeps saying, lose, left behind,made prosperous again, made pay for, made retreat, make full restitution, make go, marauding, mislead, no longer, not angry, overruling, overthrows, paid, paid back, pass again, penitent, prompt to answer,pull back, pursues, raised, ran, reappears, recoil, reconsider, recover, refreshes, refund, renew, renounce, repay, rescue, respond, rest, restitution, restore again, restrained, retire, retreat, reversed, revived, revoke, roll back, say, send, shy away, something else, strayed, subsides, supply, take away, take back, try again, turned again, to vent, to ward off, withdraw, withhold, and 33 times leaves as untranslated."
So you begin to see how utterly ridiculous and hypocritical James White is for bringing up this example of how badly the KJB translates Hebrew words.
What makes the hypocrisy of both James White and Mr. Jack Lewis all the more astonishing, is the fact that Jack Lewis himself is one of the principal NIV translators.
This is the type of scholarship men like James White and Jack Lewis employ to discredit the truth of the King James Bible.
James White has no infallible Bible to give you and he knows it, in spite meaningless profession to believe "the Bible IS the infallible words of God". And what he is promoting instead are in fact the new Vatican Versions produced by the Whore of Babylon who has made the inhabitants of the earth drunk with the wine of her spiritual fornication - Revelation 17-18.
Why Muslims love James White
James White is a Favorite Tool for Muslims & Atheists 9:40 minute video by Dr. Gene Kim.
James White denies that 1 John 5:7 is inspired Scripture. And his video is put up by MuslimByChoice.
James White is essentially the Protestant Pope of the new Vatican Versions. And he is not giving you all the factual evidence for the inclusion of 1 John 5:7. The Reformers disagree with James Wite Out.
1 John 5:7 IS inspired Scripture.
The Muslims love James White.
He also tells us that Luke 23:34 - "Then said Jesus, Father, forgive them for they know not what they do" - is not inspired Scripture and doesn't belong in the Bible - even though it is found in his own recommended ESV, NIV, NASB. Do all you James White clones agree with him on this?
Why Muslims love James White
James Wite Out, as he debates a Muslim, also denies that Mark 16:9-20 is Scripture and John 7:53-8:11 - the woman taken in adultery.
Mark 16:9-20 is inspired Scripture
John 7:53 to 8:11 is inspired Scripture
John 5:3-4 the Troubling of the Water - Is this Inspired Scripture or not?
I and thousands of other blood bought children of God believe that God has sovereignly acted in history to keep His promises to preserve His words for ever and to give us "the book of the LORD". We believe there are many reasons why this Book is none other than the Authorized King James Holy Bible.
May I suggest just one more article to you that addresses this issue. It's called "God's Persistent Historical Witness to the Absolute Standard of Written Truth in the King James Bible". You can see it here -
I urge you to prayerfully seek the mind of God on this most important matter and to examine your own present belief or unbelief in the Bible you hold in your hands. Do you REALLY believe it is the very inspired and infallible words of God? The only Christians I know of who do, are the King James Bible believers not men like James White.
All of grace, believing the Book and clothed in the righteousness of Christ alone,
"If we would destroy the Christian religion, we must first of all destroy man's belief in the Bible." Voltaire - ex French philosopher and former unbeliever.
Why I believe James White is a Christian -
I believe James White is a born again, redeemed child of God because he clearly preaches the gospel of the Lord Jesus Christ as seen in this short 3 1/2 minute video
That is probably the nicest thing that James White has said about the KJB!
"What I encourage you to do, look at what God's word says. Not what men say about it. Use the King James Version, as long as you can understand it. " 1:34-1:44
Presidency and Expansionism
Polk took office on March 4, 1845, and at 49 years of age, he became the youngest president in American history. Before Polk took the oath of office, Congress offered annexation to Texas, and when they accepted and became a new state, Mexico severed diplomatic relations with the United States and tensions between the two countries escalated.
Regarding the Oregon territory, which was much larger than the current state of Oregon, President Polk would have to contend with England, who had jointly occupied the area for nearly 30 years. Polk&aposs political allies claimed the entire Oregon area for the United States, from California northward to the 54° 40&apos latitude (the southern boundary of what is now Alaska), and so the mantra "54-40 or fight!" was born. Neither England nor the Polk administration wanted a war, and Polk knew that only war would likely allow the United States to claim the land.
After back-and-forth negotiation, and some effective hardball played by Polk, the British accepted the 49th parallel as the northern border (the current border between the United States and Canada), excluding the southern tip of Vancouver Island, and the deal was sealed in 1846.
Things went less smoothly in the hunt for California and New Mexico, and ever-increasing tensions led to the Mexican-American War. After several battles and the American occupation of Mexico City, Mexico ceded New Mexico and California in 1848, and coast-to-coast expansion was complete.
4. Pope Urban VI (1378–1389)
Bartolomeo Prignano or Pope Urban VI was a devoted monk in his early life and trained in Avignon, where he gained powerful connections. After Pope Gregory XI’s death, the conclave proposed him to be the next pope.
However, the French cardinals were not fond of Urban, and revolted against him. Later on, they had the support of other Italian cardinals, which led to declaring the pontiff’s seat vacant. The French cardinals, secretly backed by the King of France, and elected Pope Clement VII. Such an episode began the Western Schism, a time in history where the Catholic church divided into two factions with two popes raging war against each other.
Eventually, Urban became more viciously violent, particularly to the six cardinals reporting to him on the regency council. He had them seized and brutally tortured. Urban soon ordered the killing of the cardinals — either buried alive or stuffed into sacks and thrown to the sea. Only one cardinal was spared, Adam Easton, because the English King, Richard II, saved him.
According to E.R. Chamberlin’s book, The Bad Popes:
“Pope Urban VI, who complained that he did not hear enough screaming when Cardinals who had conspired against him were tortured.”
On James's arrival in London, the Puritan clergy presented him with the Millenary Petition, allegedly signed by a thousand English clergy, requesting reforms in the church, particularly the reduction of traditional rituals, which they regarded as remnants of popery. ΐ] James, however, equated English Puritans with Scottish Presbyterians and, after banning religious petitions, told the Hampton Court Conference of 1604 that he preferred the status quo, Α] with the monarch ruling the church through the bishops, as in the primitive church before the bishops of Rome turned into popes. Β] He therefore resolved to enforce conformity among the clergy, a decision which led in the short term to about ninety ejections or suspensions from livings and in the longer term to a sense of persecution among English Puritans. Γ] A notable success of the Hampton Court Conference was the commissioning of a new translation of the Bible, completed in 1611, which became known as the King James Bible, considered a masterpiece of Jacobean prose. Δ]
James, who took an interest in the scholarly decisions of the translators, often participated in theological debate. In 1612, for example, he wrote a tract against the unorthodox Dutch theologian Conrad Vorstius, a follower of Jacobus Arminius. Ε] At about the same time, he interviewed a dissenter called Bartholomew Legate, who told him he had not prayed for seven years: James was so appalled that, with the collusion of Lancelot Andrewes and other bishops, he had Legate burned at the stake, along with Edward Wightman, the last executions in England for heresy. Ζ] Another dissenter, the General Baptist leader Thomas Helwys, appealed to James for liberty of conscience and separation between church and state, only to be sent to prison, where he died by 1616. Η]
St. Valentine beheaded
On February 14, around the year 270 A.D., Valentine, a holy priest in Rome in the days of Emperor Claudius II, was executed.
Under the rule of Claudius the Cruel, Rome was involved in many unpopular and bloody campaigns. The emperor had to maintain a strong army, but was having a difficult time getting soldiers to join his military leagues. Claudius believed that Roman men were unwilling to join the army because of their strong attachment to their wives and families.
To get rid of the problem, Claudius banned all marriages and engagements in Rome. Valentine, realizing the injustice of the decree, defied Claudius and continued to perform marriages for young lovers in secret.
When Valentine’s actions were discovered, Claudius ordered that he be put to death. Valentine was arrested and dragged before the Prefect of Rome, who condemned him to be beaten to death with clubs and to have his head cut off. The sentence was carried out on February 14, on or about the year 270.
Legend also has it that while in jail, St. Valentine left a farewell note for the jailer’s daughter, who had become his friend, and signed it 𠇏rom Your Valentine.”
For his great service, Valentine was named a saint after his death.
In truth, the exact origins and identity of St. Valentine are unclear. According to the Catholic Encyclopedia, 𠇊t least three different Saint Valentines, all of them martyrs, are mentioned in the early martyrologies under the date of 14 February.” One was a priest in Rome, the second one was a bishop of Interamna (now Terni, Italy) and the third St. Valentine was a martyr in the Roman province of Africa.
Legends vary on how the martyr’s name became connected with romance. The date of his death may have become mingled with the Feast of Lupercalia, a pagan festival of love. On these occasions, the names of young women were placed in a box, from which they were drawn by the men as chance directed. In 496 A.D., Pope Gelasius decided to put an end to the Feast of Lupercalia, and he declared that February 14 be celebrated as St. Valentine’s Day.
Gradually, February 14 became a date for exchanging love messages, poems and simple gifts such as flowers.
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Articles Featuring John Pope From History Net Magazines
Early morning on August 18, 1862, found Major General J.E.B. Stuart and his staff resting fitfully on the front porch and lawn of a house in the tiny community of Verdiersville, Virginia. They had spent the night there waiting for Brigadier General Fitzhugh Lee’s cavalry to arrive so that an attack on nearby Union forces could begin. Stuart was no doubt irritated by Lee’s tardiness–perhaps he was planning how he would greet Lee when he finally arrived.
When Stuart and his party made camp the night before, they could find no trace of Lee, who had been directed to have his troops in the area by that time. Residents had seen no cavalry, and Stuart and his men had settled in to wait. During the night, Stuart had sent his adjutant general, Major Norman Fitzhugh, to find Lee’s cavalry and hurry them on.
As Stuart lay on the porch in the early morning light, a group of cavalrymen approached. Thinking it was Lee’s force, he sent out two officers to greet them. In short order shots were fired, and the officers dashed back with the 5th New York and 1st Michigan Cavalry regiments close on their heels.
Leaving his coat, haversack and hat behind, Stuart ran to his horse and, along with his staff, scattered into nearby woods. The Union troopers broke off the pursuit, stopped to gather what they could at the house, including Stuart’s famous hat, and then rode back to the Union lines. Accompanying the Federals was Norman Fitzhugh, whom they had captured the night before. After reaching Union lines, they dispatched Fitzhugh and Stuart’s bag to Maj. Gen. John Pope, who, upon seeing a letter Fitzhugh was carrying that detailed Robert E. Lee’s plan of battle, decided to pull back his forces in time to save them from a crushing defeat. Anyway, that’s the oft-repeated story.
In truth, the captured letter had nothing to do with Pope’s decision to withdraw. At the earliest, the letter arrived in midafternoon on the 18th, long after the
decision had been made. Rather than luck, it was systematic intelligence gathering that saved Pope’s army and allowed it to escape the trap that Lee had set at Clark’s Mountain.
In the wake of the disastrous Battle of Cedar Mountain on August 9, 1862, Pope had taken up what he thought was a strong position in the triangle formed on the left by the Orange & Alexandria Railroad, on the right by the Rappahannock River and at the bottom by the Rapidan River. While awaiting reinforcements and pondering a move on Richmond, Pope separated his forces, positioning Maj. Gen. Franz Sigel’s division at the foot of Cedar Mountain, Brig. Gen. Irvin McDowell’s division north of Rapidan Station, Maj. Gen. Nathaniel Banks’ division near Culpeper and Brig. Gen. Jesse Reno’s division near Raccoon Ford.
In doing so, Pope unwittingly presented Robert E. Lee with an unparalleled opportunity to crush his army. On August 15, Lee met with his corps commanders, Maj. Gens. James Longstreet and Thomas J. ‘Stonewall’ Jackson, at Gordonsville and developed a plan to take full advantage of Pope’s bad planning. Using Clark’s Mountain as a screen, Lee would bring his infantry into place on the southern side of the mountain by August 17. In addition to blocking Pope’s view of his approach, Clark’s Mountain provided a perfect location for Jackson’s signal corps to observe Union positions north of the Rapidan. Once the infantry was in place, Fitzhugh Lee’s cavalry would cross the river at Raccoon Ford early on August 18 and burn the key railroad bridge over the Rappahannock River at Rappahannock Station, cutting Pope’s only supply line. After the bridge was destroyed, the infantry would ford the Rapidan, smash into the exposed left flank of the Union line, trap the Federals between the two rivers without supplies and dispose of them at will.
Jackson was enthusiastic and wanted to attack as soon as possible. Longstreet, somewhat more cautious, suggested delaying the attack until the 18th. He also wanted to strike the Union right, where his forces would be able to use the foothills of the Blue Ridge Mountains to their advantage. Lee accepted the one-day delay but remained firm in his desire to attack the Union left.
The orders were cut on August 16, and initial preparations and troop movements began. While Robert E. Lee’s forces began to move into position, Stuart ordered Fitzhugh Lee to have his cavalry in place near Raccoon Ford by Sunday night, August 17. The elder Lee knew that surprise would be the key to success in the attack, but unbeknown to him the secrecy of his movement had been compromised by a Union spy, Sergeant Thomas O. Harter of the 1st Indiana Cavalry, who had infiltrated the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia and marched with it toward Clark’s Mountain. Harter, dressed as a civilian, had been sent out in the direction of Staunton, Va., in late July but was arrested and sent to Richmond, where he gained his release by claiming that he had been looking for railroad work. Harter reached Gordonsville and fell in with the Confederate force on August 16, putting himself in a key position to learn the enemy’s plans.
On the morning of August 17, Stuart left Fitzhugh Lee’s cavalry, returned to Robert E. Lee’s headquarters near Orange Court House and then traveled to Verdiersville to await the cavalry, which would pass by on its way to Raccoon Ford. Meanwhile, Pope, hearing numerous reports that Confederate troops were moving up from Richmond, began worrying about an attack on his exposed left flank and took measures to determine what was occurring there. He temporarily placed Brig. Gen. John Buford’s cavalry brigade under the command of Jesse Reno and ordered him to ‘push his cavalry forward on the other side of the Rapidan’ and to ‘use spies and scouts, without regard to expense, to keep yourself constantly advised of everything in your front as far as possible.’
In response, Reno dispatched the 1st Michigan and 5th New York Cavalry regiments on a scouting mission in the direction of Raccoon Ford and Louisa Court House. Leaving their camp south of Stevensburg at midday on the 17th, the Union horsemen crossed the Rapidan at Raccoon Ford, which had been left unpicketed, and headed toward Verdiersville.
While awaiting the cavalry’s return (and no doubt spurred on by the skirmishing that had taken place earlier with Confederate cavalrymen along the Rapidan), Reno summoned Lt. Col. Jacob Eugene Duryee of the 2nd Maryland Infantry to his headquarters tent late in the afternoon of the 17th. He ordered Duryee to take 250 of his men and raid a Confederate signal operation atop Clark’s Mountain early the next morning.
‘A topographical engineer will accompany you and if possible find out the enemy’s position and strength,’ said Reno. As Duryee was leaving, Reno stepped from his tent, pointed to Clark’s Mountain and said: ‘Young man, when you reach the top you will be a damned sight nearer the rebel army than your own, so look out. The rebel pickets have been exchanging shots with our troops along the Rapidan this afternoon.’ Little did Reno realize the full truth of his words, for those Rebel pickets were in fact the cavalry screen for the Confederate army hidden just behind the mountain. Leaving camp at 1 a.m., the detachment from the 2nd Maryland slipped out of camp, crossed the Rapidan at Raccoon Ford and began making its way to the summit of the mountain.
The morning of August 18 dawned with the Union troops at rest in their camps, unaware that almost the entire Confederate army was less than five miles away. In the Confederate camps near Clark’s Mountain, the soldiers anticipated orders at any moment to cross the Rapidan and attack. At Verdiersville, Stuart and his staff waited for Fitzhugh Lee’s cavalry to arrive so that the attack could begin. On Clark’s Mountain, the 2nd Maryland detachment was about to attack the mounted troops manning the Confederate signal station.
The day’s events unfolded in a way that was vastly different from what has generally been portrayed by historians over the years. The first player to take the stage was Union spy Thomas Harter.
Realizing the importance of his knowledge of the Confederates’ plan, Harter left their camp on the morning of August 18, swam the Rapidan and found his way to Reno’s headquarters. Generals Pope, McDowell, Reno and others were present when he arrived. According to McDowell, Harter reported that ‘the enemy had
accumulated all his force, including several divisions just up from Richmond, behind the ridge [Clark’s Mountain] immediately beyond the river and opposite our extreme left.’ In addition, the spy reported that the Confederates’ artillery horses were harnessed and that the troops were ready to cross the Rapidan at Raccoon Ford to get in the rear of Pope’s army. Their movement into this position, according to McDowell, ‘had been completely hidden from our sight by the ridge, and even from that of our lookouts on the top of Thoroughfare Mountain, was one made in the direction which had been expected from the first, and had for its object the interposing of the whole of the enemy’s forces between our army and its re-enforcements.’ That information was timely and would be of use, said McDowell, ‘provided the enemy gave us the night and day the start.’ This was more than an understatement Harter’s report to Pope may well have been the timeliest single product of espionage received by any Union commander during the entire war.
At sunrise on August 18, Colonel Duryee and 250 men of the 2nd Maryland Infantry reached the summit of Clark’s Mountain on their raid to disrupt the operations of the Confederate signal corpsmen, which was using the summit of the mountain as a signaling station. A short skirmish with the small Rebel force manning the post ensued, and two members of the 2nd Maryland were wounded. Two Confederates were taken prisoner. Also captured were several signal flags, code books and other papers. After securing the area, the Union detachment lingered long enough to allow a topographical engineer to make observations. The view from the mountain that morning presented an unpleasant surprise–Confederate troops so close that the raiders could hear drums in the camp below pounding out the ‘Long Roll.’
Observations completed, the detachment hurried back to their camp, spurred on by the knowledge that the Confederates would not be far behind. They stumbled on a shorter route via Somerville Ford that cut several miles off their march.
Recognizing the importance of the topographical engineer’s detailed observations, Duryee sent him ahead with an escort. According to Duryee, the following report was written and sent to Pope at about 7:30 a.m., after the engineer had reached Reno and before the remainder of the detachment, with prisoners in tow, had returned: ‘I sent, under command of Lieutenant Colonel Duryea [sic], Second Regiment Maryland Volunteers, a force of 250 men to break up the rebel signal station on Clark’s Mountain. The expedition left at 1 p.m. [a.m.] and arrived at the summit at day light next morning. A small mounted force was found there, and a slight skirmish took place in which several of the enemy were wounded and 2 captured. As soon as Colonel Duryea [sic] arrives I will send the prisoners to headquarters. They captured a signal flag and a memorandum book, from which it appears that Jackson’s Army is back of Clark’s Mountain, probably in the vicinity of Orange Court House. I send herewith the book and other papers. The cavalry has not yet returned.’
In addition to Harter, another Union spy, Richard Montgomery, had infiltrated the Confederate army. Leaving McDowell’s headquarters on the 17th, he spent the evening of the 17th and most of the 18th with the enemy force. He returned to the Union lines on the evening of the 18th. During his stay he learned that the Confederates had been reinforced and were about to make an attempt to cross the Rapidan upstream from the Union position.
Pope now found himself in a grave situation. What he and his superiors in Washington most feared had occurred. Freed from the necessity of engaging Maj. Gen. George McClellan on the peninsula, the Confederates had moved swiftly to reinforce Lee’s army. Worse than that, Lee’s force was at that moment less than five miles from Reno’s headquarters, and the attack was set to begin that very day. Pope needed no prodding. Harter’s information was clear. There was no alternative he must pull back his troops immediately or face destruction. The decision to fall back was probably a hard one for Pope, particularly given his public comments about not turning his back to his enemies. But that was the choice he took, and it was the correct one, as was made abundantly clear by reports from the 2nd Maryland Infantry and Montgomery and by Lee’s captured order.
At about 10 a.m. on August 18, Pope ordered a full-scale retreat in the face of the enemy. He directed Reno to send his wagon trains toward Stevensburg by way of Kelly’s or Barnett’s fords. His whole corps would follow, and by night only cavalry would be left behind to screen the rear of the army.
At the same time that Pope’s orders for the withdrawal were sent out, Reno, drawing on Harter’s report as well as that of the 2nd Maryland, sent a dispatch to John Buford ordering him to make a cavalry scout: ‘The enemy are in strong force about 2 miles back of Clark’s Mountain, extending thence towards Raccoon Ford. I wish you to send a squadron of Cavalry near Raccoon Ford, and to scout from thence on the north side of the Rapidan as far as Germanna Ford. Let me hear as soon as your cavalry returns.’
The movement, ordered at 10 a.m., was underway by 1:30 p.m. After the withdrawal had begun, Pope informed his superior, General-in-Chief Henry Halleck, of his moves: ‘The enemy, heavily reinforced, is advancing on Raccoon Ford from Gordonsville, Louisa Court House and Hanover Junction. All the Richmond force has been thrown in this direction to turn my left….I have accordingly, in compliance with your instructions, started back all my trains to pass the Rappahannock tonight. My whole command will commence to fall back to that line.’
Meanwhile, Lee had been forced to postpone the attack from the 18th to the 20th because several of his units had not arrived at their assigned position. As Lee and his staff watched from atop Clark’s Mountain at midday on August 18, 1862, the Union camps looked quiet. But appearances were deceiving–the Union forces were preparing to withdraw. By midday on August 19 that truth was all too apparent.
Observing again from Clark’s Mountain as the last men and wagons of Pope’s Army of Virginia disappeared in ever shrinking clouds of dust into the Virginia countryside, Lee turned to Longstreet and said disappointedly, ‘General, we little thought that the enemy would turn his back upon us this early in the campaign.’
As the Union troops faded into the distance, the Confederate command had firm knowledge of only one reason for the withdrawal–the raid on Stuart’s signal station by the 2nd Maryland. J.K. Boswell, Jackson’s chief engineer, said of the raid, ‘On the morning of the 18th a body of the enemy drove our pickets from Clark Mountain, and found out the position of our troops, and on the 19th they commenced their retreat toward the Rappahannock.’
The race to Second Manassas was on. Clark’s Mountain would soon be forgotten, and the intelligence gathering that had served Pope so well would fail miserably. Nevertheless, the events surrounding Clark’s Mountain are instructive because they bring to light the enormous value of Union intelligence operations when conducted effectively, as well as providing a perfect example of why the writings of Civil War generals are not always to be trusted.
Taking Pope’s report at face value, it is easy to see how a misconception could arise. The report says that ‘the cavalry expeditions sent out on the 16th in the direction of Louisa Court House captured the adjutant-general of General Stuart, and was very near capturing that officer himself. Among the papers was an autograph letter of General Robert E. Lee to General Stuart, dated Gordonsville, August 13, which made manifest to me the position and force of the enemy and their determination to overwhelm the army under my command….’
It is this paragraph that historian Edwin C. Fishel, in his work The Secret War for the Union, describes as ‘the clearest example Civil War history ever produces of a general’s use of a cover story to protect a piece of espionage.’ According to Fishel, Pope himself admitted the deception in a postwar letter to Harter in which Pope said the former spy had been the first person to give him the vital information concerning Lee’s plan.
While Pope’s report was printed in the Official Records, both the records of Harter’s service and Pope’s letter to him remained unpublished and unexamined, as did the accounts of the 2nd Maryland’s raid. The absence of those accounts made the prominence of the captured order understandable. However, relying on the story of the captured order is troublesome, since it gives a false picture of Pope’s conduct in the Second Manassas campaign. It makes it seem as if he was blissfully going along when a sudden stroke of luck provided him with the information he needed to save his army. That could not be farther from the truth. While Pope may not have been aware of the precise location of the Confederate army until the morning of August 18, the fact that they were nearby probably did not surprise him too much. He had long suspected that the Confederates would seek to attack him on the left of his line, and he had been receiving reports, as he himself stated, since August 12 that Lee was being reinforced and was moving to confront him from that direction. Both Pope and his superiors in Washington rightly felt that with McClellan’s withdrawal from the Virginia peninsula, Lee would be reinforced and move against Pope’s left.
Pope’s order to Reno of August 17, which sparked the mission of the 2nd Maryland and the scout of the 1st Michigan and 5th New York, mentioned that exact scenario and was designed to try to avoid it if at all possible. Far from being ignorant of potential danger, Pope used every means at his disposal to keep watch on his vulnerable left flank: a cavalry scout, an infantry scout, spies and lookouts on Thoroughfare Mountain. While the lookouts failed to see the advancing Confederate army, the other three produced valuable intelligence.
A quick survey of current titles on the campaign and Battle of Second Manassas reveals how widespread the story of the captured order is, but this has not always been the case. Several historians came close to blowing Pope’s cover story before Fishel. One was Douglas Southall Freeman in his Pulitzer Prize­winning biography of Lee. He mentioned all three possible sources of intelligence, giving prominence to the captured order, then mentioning the 2nd Maryland’s raid: ‘To his [Lee’s] disappointment over his inability to strike Pope in his exposed position…there was added on the 18th a fear that the enemy had discovered his presence despite his efforts to conceal the army. He learned that at daylight the Federals had raided a signal station that Jackson had established on…Clark’s Mountain….There was no way of telling what the enemy had seen before he had been driven back, or what records he had found.’ Freeman also mentioned in passing the report of Thomas Harter, citing McDowell’s official report as his source.
Another historian, Charles F. Walcott, mentioned the 2nd Maryland’s report in his History of the 21st Massachusetts: ‘A strong cavalry expedition…which captured an important dispatch from General Lee to General Stuart, and a gallant reconnaissance by our 2nd Maryland regiment on the night of the 17th, disclosed not only General Lee’s determination to make short and decisive work with General Pope and his army, but also that a rebel force amply sufficient to crush us, masked by the hills across the river, was rapidly moving into position for an advance.’
Those two mentions of the 2nd Maryland’s raid are among the few accounts by historians that differ from the story of the captured order. Two additional accounts by members of the 2nd Maryland Infantry provide essential information about the timing of the arrival of the captured order and help establish approximate times for the report of the 2nd Maryland.
Benjamin F. Taylor, last commanding officer of the 2nd Maryland, wrote his own account of events, which makes a case for his regiment providing the information that saved Pope’s army. After telling the story of the raid, Taylor noted that ‘our Colonel [Duryee] reported to General Reno between seven and eight o’clock a.m. by courier and in person before 10 a.m.’ Drawing on Reno’s report of the unit’s action and Pope’s official report of the campaign, Taylor made a case for the importance of the raid. He presented first Reno’s report, then a lengthy portion of Pope’s report, the gist of which is that by the morning of August 18 Pope had become convinced that the newly reinforced Confederate army was assembling nearby.
Taylor continued with the rest of Pope’s rationale for the withdrawal: ‘On the 18th of August it became apparent…that this advanced position…was no longer tenable in the face of the overwhelming forces of the enemy. I determined, accordingly, to withdraw behind the Rappahannock….I directed Major General Reno to send back his trains on the morning of the 18th, by the way of Stevensburg, to Kelly’s or Barnette’s [sic] Ford, and…then follow with his whole corps.’
That passage makes it clear that Pope’s decision was made on the morning of the 18th, which is a key point, as it is unlikely that a large cavalry force traveling 13 or more miles deep into Confederate territory would have been able to return to Union lines before 10 a.m. According to Taylor, the captured order did not reach Pope until sometime after 3 p.m. on August 18.
As additional evidence, Taylor included a letter from A.N. Wood, a sergeant in the 6th New York Cavalry. Wood ‘was present when the report of the 2nd Maryland’s expedition was dictated and written, about ten a.m.,’ said Taylor. ‘Wood says the last sentence ‘The cavalry [Buford’s] has not yet returned’ will ring in his ears through life. The clerk became a little mixed and the general had to repeat it. He also says the cavalry returned in the afternoon.
‘This statement [Wood’s] taken with the reports of Reno and Pope…indicate clearly the information obtained by the Second decided the retrograde movements of the army, the wisdom of which was later confirmed by the cavalry when they returned with J.E.B. Stuart’s adjutant general and General Lee’s order for attack.’
In light of the available information on Harter and his report, Taylor was mistaken in his conclusion, but his account establishes the timing of the decision and the fact that the captured order did not arrive in time.
Another account, written by Jacob Eugene Duryee, provides additional details of the raid. According to Duryee, the detachment left camp at 1 a.m. on the morning of the 18th. ‘The night was cloudy and very dark,’ he wrote. ‘You could not see objects ten inches from you.’ After crossing the Rappahannock at Raccoon Ford, the men climbed over a fence and, avoiding a road near the river, headed up the side of Clark’s Mountain. ‘By avoiding the road we met with many obstacles, mostly consisting of fences, and it was with difficulty that we made the march up the side of the mountain,’ he wrote. The raiders had been ordered to attack the signal post at daylight, but it was sunrise when they captured it. By Duryee’s estimate, the time was 5:23 a.m. They spent about 20 minutes on the summit, and between 5:45 and 6 a.m. they began the march back to camp.
According to Duryee, their return journey went much more quickly than their march to the summit, since it was daylight and they found a ford that cut a mile off their march. ‘I am positive that the report of the engineer reached General Reno sometime before the detachment returned,’ wrote Duryee. ‘For shortly after leaving the signal station the great importance of the information he had obtained, I knew was being anxiously awaited for by Genl. Reno. I therefore sent him ahead with an escort to make all possible haste to the headquarters of the General….I feel sure that the engineer was present when Gen. Reno dictated this report and the time was about 7:30 a.m.’ He mentioned Taylor’s account and said that Taylor was incorrect in saying that he had reported to Reno by 10 a.m. ‘This should read 8 a.m. for about 10 a.m. the order from Gen. Pope had been issued for the retreat,’ wrote Duryee. In another letter he stated that he was sure that ‘the reports of Topographical Engineer and myself of the skirmish were in Gen. Pope’s hands before 8 a.m.’
When Taylor’s and Duryee’s accounts are merged with the reports and dispatches in the Official Records and with the facts of Harter and Montgomery’s reports, a completely different picture of Pope’s actions arises. The only workable chronology for the day’s events is that Harter provided the first intelligence of Lee’s army at an unknown time on the morning of August 18. Concurrently or soon after, news of the 2nd Maryland’s raid reached Reno’s headquarters at about 8 a.m., followed by Montgomery’s report on the evening of the 18th and the arrival of the captured order sometime between the afternoon of the 18th and August 22, which is when Pope reported to General Halleck that he had the captured letter.
For too long Thomas Harter’s and Richard Montgomery’s bravery in infiltrating the Confederate army and the story of the 2nd Maryland’s raid on Clark’s Mountain have been lost in the mists of history. Rather than a triumph of luck or the fortunes of war, it was instead a systematic use of intelligence-gathering through spies, signal corps operatives, cavalry and infantry reconnaissance that saved Pope at Clark’s Mountain. It was not blind luck, but skillful professionalism–an overriding factor in the entire outcome of the war.
This article was written by John Lam and originally appeared in the July 1998 issue of America’s Civil War magazine.
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