The story

How to find the image of a 17th century music instruments manufacture?

How to find the image of a 17th century music instruments manufacture?

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How to find on Goolge Images search an image of 17th or 18th century manufacture? The drawing (or lithography) was showing a hall with people sitting around and building music instruments. I have seen this image once but cannot find it anymore. Thanks for help!

Expected answers are example search entries or maybe someone knows this image. Similar drawings hints are welcomed as well.

This one perhaps?


If not try visually similar image search

I found this by starting a google image search for "Luthier engraving".

It is from Encyclopédie, ou dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des métiers, first published in 1751 and edited by Denis Diderot.

A Brief History of Navigational Instruments

It is easy enough to find your way around your home, your local neighborhood, or even your home town or city, but what if you need to go further afield? Suppose you are traversing a desert or an ocean with no familiar landmarks to guide you. It is very easy to get lost. Travelling merchants and explorers have faced these navigational challenges for thousands of years, and have developed numerous means of overcoming them. Since the dawn of history, mankind has used the Sun - the most predictable object in the sky - to determine the time of day and establish direction. Over many millennia, we have acquired knowledge about the positions occupied in the night sky by the Moon, stars and planets, and have used that knowledge for navigation. The following sections take a brief look at some of the instruments and technologies man has used to acquire such information, and to find their way around the globe.

How to find the image of a 17th century music instruments manufacture? - History

At first glance, there may not seem to be much of a connection between the "Scientific Revolution" that took place in Western Europe starting in the 17th century CE, and the political revolutions that took place in Western Europe and its colonies beginning in the late 18th century. What could the development of calculus and the discovery of laws of physics (such as gravitation) possibly have to do with the overthrow of monarchical and colonial governments and the establishment of new democracies?

In fact, they have a lot to do with one another. In order to understand the connection, and also to understand both the scientific and the political developments better, we must look to the philosophical ideas they share.

There are 2 ideas that are fundamental to both the "Scientific Revolution" and the political revolutions. These 2 ideas appear in one form or another in the basic documents of both. They are:

    the idea that the universe and everything in it work according to "laws of nature." These laws are established by the Divine Being (generally the God of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam). (1) Thus the universe is ultimately run by a divine being, but this divine being does not do things at random or capriciously rather, the divine being makes things work in an orderly and regular fashion. This idea is accompanied by

Now, the idea that we can learn true things about the universe by means of observation and reasoning has important implications for politics, thought, and life in general. First, everyone is capable of observing things, and everyone is capable of reasoning. If we were not able to observe and reason, we could not be expected to make choices, obey laws and religious rules and moral standards, etc. Of course, some people lack the ability to observe certain things (blind people cannot observe colors, for example), but everyone can observe something.

If we all have the ability to observe and reason, then in principle we all have the ability to learn true things about the universe, according to the writers of the Scientific Revolution and the European "Enlightenment." In other words, if we want to learn about how the universe works - from how volcanoes form to how diseases occur to how stars develop to what kinds of laws are fair to humans - we can do it by training our powers of observation and reasoning. We can train our powers of observation and reasoning by learning mathematics (arithmetic, algebra, geometry) and logic, by carefully recording and checking our observations, and by doing experiments. All humans are capable of doing these things. And, if we write down our findings and show our reasoning carefully, others can check our results.

Galileo (1564-1642 Italian) is an example of a writer who put forth these ideas.

In his book The Assayer, written in 1623, Galileo said, "Philosophy is written in this grand book of the universe, which stands continually open to our gaze. But the book cannot be understood unless one first learns to comprehend the language and to read the alphabet in which it is composed. It is written in the language of mathematics, and its characters are triangles, circles and other geometric figures, without which it is humanly impossible to understand a single word of it without these, one wanders in a dark labyrinth."

(By 'philosophy' Galileo means both what we would call philosophy and also natural sciences, which were in his time studied as part of philosophy. For more on the great astronomer, physicist, and mathematician Galileo, see the excellent web site of Prof. Fowler at the University of Virginia.)

What Galileo is saying is that the workings of the universe are understandable, and that we need mathematics in order to understand them. This may seem to many people today to be a very obvious point: of course we need to learn mathematics in order to understand things so many fields rely on measurements, statistics, "facts and figures." But it was not so obvious in Galileo's time, and he was tried and imprisoned for his theories that were based on this idea.

Why would anyone want to punish Galileo for this?

Galileo was punished by certain important members of the Catholic Church. Remember that in Europe in Galileo's time, there was no separation of church and state the religious authorities ran the universities and could censor publications, and worked hand-in-hand with the governments of the various countries. Galileo lived in Italy, which was Catholic, and got into trouble with some people close to the Pope.

The basic problem that these religious authorities found was that some of Galileo's scientific discoveries appeared to contradict the official Catholic interpretation of Christian scripture, or to contradict the official Catholic interpretation of Aristotle. (Why the Catholic Church accepted the works of Aristotle is a long story here I will say only that the 17th-century Church interpretation of Aristotle's scientific work is not necessarily what Aristotle intended.) For example, Galileo discovered more stars in the sky than are mentioned in the Bible or Aristotle, because he had a telescope and Aristotle and the ancient Hebrews did not. Galileo discovered that a heavier object falls no faster than a lighter one (the Church interpreted Aristotle as saying that heavy objects fall faster than light ones a close examination of Aristotle's texts suggests that this is a misunderstanding or a mistranslation of Aristotle's words). Therefore the Church authorities claimed that Galileo had contradicted sacred truths. They believed that if human observation and reasoning seemed to say something different from holy scripture (or from their interpretation of holy scripture), then the human observation and reasoning must be wrong. (2)

Galileo pointed out that he was not denying God's perfection or role as a creator that the Bible did not specify exactly how many stars there were that some statements in the Bible are not understood literally (for example, even the Church agreed that the sun does not literally "rise").

But Galileo was unable to convince the Church authorities of this, even though Aristotle himself would have agreed with Galileo about the need for independent investigation, reasoning, and proof. What was really at stake here was what counts as knowledge, and why who can get new knowledge, and how. The Church held that knowledge was revealed in Scripture that a person with a religious calling and lots of training in accepted interpretations could learn. Other people should be content to hear these trained religious people explain things. The Church was more interested in the ultimate nature of things (as revealed by God) and in how to achieve salvation than in the everyday workings of things, so a lot of areas were just not covered by Church teachings. Galileo and the Scientific Revolution argued that perhaps religious revelation was needed in order to learn the ultimate meaning of things and the way to salvation, but that observation and reasoning would tell us about how things work on an everyday basis and that any human could learn these things if he or she worked hard enough.

This sets the stage for Rene Descartes (1596-1650 French).

Descartes set himself a dual task: (1) Show that Galileo was right about how to seek knowledge and (2) Avoid getting imprisoned or executed for this.

This meant that Descartes had to show (1') that true things can be discovered by means of observation and reasoning and (2') that this independent inquiry does not violate any religious or moral rules.

Descartes was uniquely equipped for this project in that he was a mathematical genius (he invented analytic geometry, or what became analytic geometry the Cartesian coordinate system is named after him), a scientist (he did work in optics and physics), and a philosopher. He was educated in Catholic schools and knew their teachings well.

Descartes argued that the very essence of being human was the ability to think or reason (see for example Discourse Part Four Meditation Two). The Catholic Church could not deny that this ability had been given to us by God, since only by means of this ability can we have an idea of God, understand scripture, worship, etc. Descartes continued by saying that "we should never allow ourselves to be persuaded except by the evidence of our reason" (3) (22). The senses and imagination, Descartes felt, could be important sources of raw information, but they might give us erroneous information, so we must be careful always to examine our sensory impressions and ideas by using reason. Some of our ideas may turn out not to be true, Descartes says, but "all our ideas or notions ought to have some foundation of truth, for it would not be possible that God, who is all-perfect and all-truthful, would have put them in us without that." (4) Note that Descartes does not claim that all of our ideas are true, but rather that even the false ones have some basis in truth. Our false ideas come from our reactions to real things or to our impressions of real things, and our reactions and impressions may be confused, or we may have insufficient information to make a true judgment, etc. Through reason, he says, we can find out the truth.

How are we to find out the truth? Descartes provides a method of reasoning that is very much like today's mathematical and scientific methods (see Discourse Part Two).

What truths will we find out? Descartes says in Part Five of the Discourse that he has "showed what the laws of nature were": There are, he says, "certain laws that God has so established in nature and of which he has impressed in our souls such notions, that, after having reflected sufficiently on these matters, we cannot deny that they are strictly adhered to in everything that exists or occurs in the world." 5 God has made the universe work according to laws, Descartes holds and God has given us impressions of these laws. By reflection and reasoning, we can gain clear knowledge of these laws. The laws Descartes is talking about are such things as the laws of physics, the principles of respiration and circulation, and so on.

Descartes was very careful in his publishing, and got into only minimal trouble with religious authorities. Times were beginning to change politically. But Descartes had to stay out of certain countries for his own safety. He found safe havens in places with more tolerant regimes, and even served as a sort of professor to the Queen of Sweden, who was a very able philosopher and scientist in her own right. Descartes also sent his work informally to philosophers and scientists who he thought would be sympathetic to his projects, and this got the word out. In addition, he did something new and clever: he put his work out in French as well as in Latin. Latin was the language of the Catholic Church and the universities, so it was important for Descartes to use it. But many people in Europe knew only minimal Latin, and some of these people were able to be very helpful. The people who knew Latin well were Catholic (and some Protestant) clergy, and those who could study at universities. But most of the people at universities were nobility, and all were men. There was a growing number of noblewomen, and members of the merchant and artisan classes of both sexes, who had the resources and the interest to study philosophy and science. They had not had much of a chance so far. French was a language that many people knew it was used often outside of France. So these people read Descartes with great interest, and provided him with scholarly discussion as well as in some cases political and financial support.

But what does that have to do with political revolutions?

One immediate connection can be seen in the fact that Descartes was arguing that reasoning was an ability all people have, and that this ability we all have is exactly what we need in order to learn about the world. We don't need a special upbringing or education or religion (Descartes reached out to people of all religions that he knew). And Descartes made sure that every human who could read French would have a chance to try. In this way, he was very egalitarian. This was very much different from the way most institutions worked in his time, where only a small number of people had any political power or religious authority, and others did not have a chance to try for it.

The idea of natural equality and rule by reason was also getting an explicitly political interpretation at this time. Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679 English) wrote in Leviathan (1651), "Nature hath made men so equal, in the faculties of body and mind as that, though there be found one man sometimes manifestly stronger in body or of quicker mind than another, yet when all is reckoned together, the difference between man and man is not so considerable, as that one man can thereupon claim to himself any benefit, to which another may not pretend as well as he. From this equality of ability, ariseth equality of hope in the attaining of our ends" (6) (Chapter XIII). Given scarcity of resources, people tend to fight for survival, power, and protection and the result, according to Hobbes, is that the "state of nature" is a state of war. But we don't have to remain always at war, because nature itself gives us a way out, and that way out is discoverable by reason: "The passions that incline men to peace are fear of death, desire of such things as are necessary to commodious living, and a hope by their industry to attain them. And reason suggesteth convenient articles of peace. These articles are they wich otherwise are called the Laws of Nature. " (also Chapter XIII).

According to Hobbes (Ch. XIV), a law of nature is "a precept or general rule, found out by reason, by which a man is forbidden to do what is destructive of life, or taketh away the means of preserving the same and to omit that by which he thinketh it may be best preserved."

The first two laws of nature, according to Hobbes, are (1) "that every man ought to endeavor peace, as far as he has hope of attaining it and when he cannot obtain it, that he may see and use all the helps and advantages of war" and (2) "that a man be willing, when others are so too, as far forth as for peace and defense of himself he shall think it necessary, to lay down this right to all things and be contented with so much liberty against other men, as he would allow other men against himself" (Ch. XIV). Hobbes explicitly connects the second law with Chritian scripture.

Now, it is true that Christian writers in Europe had been saying for over a millennium that all people were equal in the sight of God. What was so different here?

-- First, some Christian writers had allowed for the "divine right of kings" and secondarily for the special rights of aristocrats: the kings, assisted by the aristocrats, were supposed to be those who ruled the earth according to God's will. Kings and aristocrats had special responsibilities (which some took seriously and some did not), but also special rights and privileges. Hobbes is saying that no one can rightly claim special status by birth one can only be a leader by the agreement of those who are to be led. No one is to violate certain natural rights no king is to take land from a person just because the king wants to, for example. As Hobbes says in Ch. XV, it is a law of nature that everyone must acknowledge the others as one's equals by nature.

-- Second, Hobbes is claiming that the laws of nature are discoverable by reason. You don't need special instruction in interpreting scripture in order to discover these laws and they apply to everyone no matter what their religion. Hobbes thinks his laws are in keeping with Christian religious law, or with its true spirit. But he thinks that this is because Christian teachings follow the laws of nature, not the other way around.

John Locke (1632-1704 English) took these ideas even further.

John Locke was familiar with the work of Descartes and Hobbes, and was himself a source of many ideas of the French Enlightenment, the American Revolution, and the French Revolution. Here are some passages from his Second Treatise of Government (1690), illustrating once again the idea of laws of nature discoverable by reason.

Like Hobbes, Locke begins from a picture of the "state of nature" or "natural state" of humans but Locke's picture of it is less harsh than Hobbes' picture: The state of nature for all men, he says, "is a state of perfect freedom to order their actions and dispose of their possessions as they think fit, within the bounds of the law of nature, without asking leave, or depending on the will of any other man. A state also of equality, wherein all power and jurisdiction is reciprocal, no one having more than another. "(Chapter II). This is not necessarily a state of war, Locke thinks.

According to Locke, "The state of nature has a law of nature to govern it, which obliges everyone and reason, which is that law, teaches all mankind who will but consult it, that, being all equal and independent, no one ought to harm another in his life, health, liberty, or possessions" (Chapter II). Locke is explicit that slavery is against the law of nature and argues that it should therefore be against civil laws too (Chapter IV).

Compare these passages from Locke and Hobbes with some articles of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen (French Revolution):

Article 1: Men are born and remain free and equal in rights.

Article 2: The purpose of all political association is the preservation of the natural and imprescriptible rights of man. These rights are liberty, property, security, and resistance to oppression.

Article 4: Liberty consists in the ability to do whatever does not harm another.

Article 12: The safeguard of the rights of man and the citizen requires public powers. These powers are therefore instituted for the advantage of all, not for the private benefit of those to whom they are entrusted.

1. Most of the scientists, philosophers, and political activists in Western Europe and its colonies at this time were Christians of some sort (various kinds of Protestants, as well as Catholics). Some were Jewish. (Remember that there were very few Muslims left in Western Europe at this time.) However, the descriptions of the divine being that these scientists, philosophers, and political activists used would fit the beliefs of Judaism, Christianity, AND Islam. That is, the revolutionary writings describe a divine being who is all-powerful, all-knowing, all-good, and the creator of the universe. Most do not say anything that is specific to any one monotheistic religion. An excellent example of this is found in Descartes' Discourse on the Method for Rightly Conducting One's Reason and Seeking Truth in the Sciences, Part Four.

2. It is important to note that some Catholic theologians saw nothing wrong with what Galileo was doing, and even supported it. However, the ones who supported Galileo were not the most powerful politically.

3. All quotations from Descartes are from Discourse on the Method for Rightly Conducting One's Reason and Seeking Truth in the Sciences, translated by Donald Cress. The edition used here is Discourse on Method and Meditations on First Philosophy, fourth edition (Hackett Publishing Co., 1998). The quotation is from Part Four of the Discourse. The page in that edition is 22 if you are using another edition of the same translation your page numbers may be different.

4. Also from Part Four page 22 in the edition noted above.

5. Quotations are from pages 24 and 23, respectively, in the edition noted above.

6. Hobbes generally uses the word 'man' in a way that suggests that he refers to all humans. Great debate ensued as to whether the notion that all "men" were equal should entail that women should have the same political, social, and economic rights as men. Similarly, over the next couple of centuries, debates arose as to whether all peoples of the world should have the same rights.
Quotations from Hobbes come from the version of the text used in this class:

7. All quotations from Locke on this page come from the version of the text used in this class:

"The Scientific Revolution of the 17th Century and The Political Revolutions of the 18th Century" by Rose Cherubin is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

Steel Drums

Steel drums are another variety of drum that are very important in the Caribbean, and have come to represent the region in popular culture worldwide. These drums, originally made out of steel barrels and developed in Trinidad in the early 20th century, were created in response to a ban on hand drums and bamboo drums, according to The Toucan Steel Drum Band.

Metal drums, known as steel drums or steel pans, produce a multitude of sounds. This is due to the concave shape, which allows the drums to produce different sounds when struck in different places. There are also several different sizes of steel drums, making it a diverse-sounding instrument that is now tied to Caribbean culture and easily recognizable as being from the region.

Viola - History

The history of the viola is closely linked to the development of the other instruments in the violin family, which were first made in northern Italy between 1530 and 1550. It may be assumed that the alto, tenor and bass versions emerged soon after the soprano instrument. Illustrious names such as Andrea and Nicola Amati, Gasparo da Salò, Andrea Guarnieri and Antonio Stradivari were already associated with cities such as Milan, Brescia, Cremona and Venice at this time.

The names of all stringed instruments are derived from the term “viola” in the 16th and 17th centuries it described two families of stringed instruments, the viola da braccio and the viola da gamba. The appellations da braccio and da gamba have two meanings on the one hand they describe the playing position. Da braccio is Italian for “played on the arm” and refers to the horizontal playing position. Da gamba means “played at the leg” and refers to the vertical playing position.

On the other hand they also describe the two instruments’ characteristic construction: The viola da braccio, the forerunner of the instruments of the violin family, had low ribs, a rounded back, F-shaped sound holes, a fretless fingerboard, a neck raised from the body with a scroll and four strings across a curved bridge, which meant that they could be bowed individually. The viola da gamba had high ribs, a vaulted belly, a flat back and C or F-shaped sound holes. The body extended upwards toward the neck, the fingerboard had seven frets and the five to seven strings lay across a rather flat bridge which meant that the bow could play more than two adjacent strings at once.

In terms of construction and sound the violoncello also belongs to the violin family but is played da gamba.

The splitting of the middle register

In the 16th century it was customary for alto and tenor instruments to be made in different sizes but with exactly the same tuning. The alto and tenor versions of the viola were generally tuned as follows: C3, G3, D4, A4, in other words, the same tuning as the modern viola. This tuning was a fifth lower than the soprano tuning (G3, D4, A4, E5) and two fifths higher than the bass tuning (Bb1, F2, C3, G3). Because the alto and tenor tunings were so far apart from the bass tuning, larger instruments in the true tenor tuning (F2, C3, G3, D4) began to be made. Tenor violas in the “alto tuning” remained in use, however.

In 16th and 17th century France five-part string ensembles were the norm. The middle register was played by three violas in the same tuning but of various sizes (cinquième, haute-contre, taille). The court string ensemble called the 24 “violins du roi” laid the foundation for the five-part string orchestra.

There were, therefore, three types of instrument: the alto violas in the alto tuning, whose body (40–42 cm) corresponded to that of today’s standard the tenor violas, 42–45 cm long, with a relatively short neck and in the same tuning and the “genuine” tenor instruments tuned to F. The overlapping in the middle register was one of the most distinctive features of the string orchestra of that time and led to a reallocation of tasks in the period that followed.

Roles are clearly defined

The 17th century saw a shift in the requirements made of stringed instruments. The growing popularity of baroque opera also had consequences for the development of the orchestra: The need to project the splendor of baroque music and fill large rooms with it meant that the powerful and brilliant da braccio violins finally gained predominance over the softer and more mellow-sounding da gambas.

The composition of the string ensemble also changed, abandoning the five-part ensemble in favor of the four-part with two violins, an alto viola and a violoncello as bass. This development, which was completed in around 1750, signaled the death-knell of the tenor viola, which, although full-sounding, was not particularly agile. From the middle of the 18th century the violoncello, which was actually the violin family’s bass instrument, emerged to take on the role of playing the lower middle (tenor) register. The thumb position enabled the cello to rise high into the tenor (and even alto) range and bridge the gap left by the tenor viola. This new allocation of roles in the middle register contained the area of overlapping which has remained obligatory to this day.

The first instructional works for the viola began to appear in around 1780 and were written for experienced violinists, which demonstrates the great similarity of the two instruments’ playing techniques.

Modernization around 1800

Because music was now being performed more often in concert halls, and also because François Tourte (1747–1835) had strengthened the bow, a succession of changes to the construction of the instruments in the violin family, including the viola, were made at the turn of the 19th century. The strings were made heavier and their tension increased to improve projection the neck was set at a slight backward angle to the body and was now longer, retaining the same circumference along its whole length to make it easier for the left hand to slide up and down to different positions. At the same time the body, bridge and bass bar were reinforced.

Absolute equality

It was not until the end of the 19th century that the viola gained the same status as the violin. The great difficulty was to find the perfect balance between size and ease of playing, as is shown by several attempts to improve the instrument’s construction which led to the development of various different types of viola in the first half of the 20th century. Smaller instruments are easier to play, but their sound is too soft larger instruments produce the desired volume but are harder to play. In 1875 Hermann Ritter made a so-called viola alta which had a body 48 cm long. Although Richard Wagner and Richard Strauss appreciated its powerful sound and made use of it in the orchestra, it presented the musicians with considerable difficulties – which were even detrimental to their health. In the 1930s the Englishman Lionel Tertis made a model with a 43 cm long body, which successfully combined size (= volume) and ease of playing. Its full, deep and warm sound was impressive. As a rule larger instruments (approx. 43 cm) are used by professional musicians, while smaller models (approx. 40 cm) are intended for amateurs.

Cymbals - History

The name cymbal (also cimbel or cymbel) comes from the Latin cymbalum (plural cymbala for a pair of cymbals) which in turn derives from the Greek kumbalon (cup).

Cymbals originated in Asia and are among the oldest percussion instruments. They have always been closely associated with religious worship and rituals (e.g. funeral rites), although they were also used to accompany dances dancers hung cymbals around their necks on a piece of twine and beat them in time to the music. Cymbals were only ever used in pairs and the playing techniques included single strokes, strisciatti (rotating both plates against each other) and rolls.

A wide variety of cymbals was already in existence in antiquity:

  • a large pair of cymbals with a construction that strongly resembled today's
  • dancers' small cymbals that were played like castanets (finger cymbals)
  • plates with a slight upward curve of the rim and a pot-shaped dome (Chinese cymbal)
  • two hemispheres with leather straps or handles.

From the Orient to Europe

Cymbals were first introduced into Europe in the Middle Ages by the Saracens, who brought them to Spain and southern Italy. However, at the beginning of the last millennium they disappeared again, probably because the art of hammering had been lost. Despite this, portrayals of cymbals can be found in medieval miniatures up to about the 15th century.

It was not until the 17th century that cymbals returned to Europe, in the wake of the Turkish wars. Turkey had long been famed for the excellence of its cymbal manufacture. The music spread by Turkish military bands (Janissary music) was characterized by noisy and rhythmic instruments such as the bass drum, the side drum, cymbals, the triangle, the tambourine and the bell-tree. European military bands began imitating Janissary music at the beginning of the 18th century.

It was not long before Turkish cymbals began to be scored – albeit very rarely – in the opera orchestra. Christoph Willibald Gluck asked for them in his opera Iphigénie en Tauride (1779), specifically in the Scythians’ chorus in Act 1 (cymbals, triangle, side drum). The best-known example of an early use of cymbals is probably Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart's Turkish opera from 1782, The Abduction from the Seraglio (cymbals, triangle, bass drum).

It was in the last thirty years of the 19th century that the cymbals finally established themselves as a permanent part of the percussion section. They were used very effectively by Ludwig van Beethoven (in his 9th Symphony), Georges Bizet (in Carmen), Franz Liszt and Richard Wagner among others.

While history is scarce from this era, there is enough information to suggest that our instrument was played by the Romans and Etruscans, but not by the ancient Greeks.

It is interesting to note that the flute seems to disappear with the fall of Rome and only begins to reappear in the 10th and 11th centuries. It is probable that the instrument was introduced into Western Europe by way of Germany from Byzantium. By the 14th century, the flute began to appear in non-Germanic European countries, which included Spain, France and Flanders.

The Origins of 7 Musical Instruments

Long before the Tambourine Man played a song for Bob Dylan, tambourine-like instruments were being used by Ojibwe and Cree people in what is now Canada, in several Middle Eastern cultures, in South India, China, and in Eastern Europe. In ancient Egypt, tambourines were used by temple dancers, and were used in festivals and processions by the Greeks and Romans.

Over in Western Europe, the tambourine began to gain popularity in the mid-18th century as an orchestral instrument, particularly when that infamous rebel of the classical music world, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, began to employ it in several compositions. Today, while the tambourine is still occasionally used in orchestral music, it's more commonly associated with Western folk music.

2. Kettle Drum

The kettle drum varies greatly across cultures, but the earliest versions may date back to at least 4000 B.C.E. in Mesopotamia. Babylonian artifacts have also been found with instructions for building kettle drums inscribed on them. Used throughout the ancient Middle East and in many Islamic cultures, kettle drums first arrived in western Europe thanks to soldiers returning home from the Crusades. It's no surprise then that in Western cultures, kettle drums have typically been associated with the military: The kettle drum was used in battle as an imposing noise to signal the opposing army's impending doom, as well as to keep their own soldiers marching in time.

3. Guitars

The first guitar was a variation on a lute, a stringed instrument with a curved back, designed in western Europe in the 13th century. A few hundred years later, the Spanish "vihuela" had come into being, and by the mid-16th century, the "guitarre" had become a popular instrument in Spain, and was subsequently introduced into France. Musically-inclined Spanish and Portugese colonists brought their guitars with them on their trips to Africa and the New World. In the Carribean, regional variants on the guitar sprang up, as indigenous people adopted the instruments to fit traditional music: the tres, from Cuba, and the cuatro, from Puerto Rico, are two such instruments. Further south, the charango came into being—an instrument sometimes made out of the shell of an armadillo—and in Mexico, the huge bass guitar known as a guitarron became a mainstay of mariachi music.

The guitar largely remained part of the rhythm section until the birth of the recording industry in the United States. Guitar makers and players "“ as well as the industry execs "“ wanted louder guitars, and a few people began to look at electronic amplification as a means to this end. In 1931, a man named Adolph Rickenbacker collaborated with George Beauchamp to make the first electric guitar pickup: a magnet with a coil of wire wrapped around it, which when electrified by a current amplified the sound produced by the vibration of the guitar strings. By the end of the 30s and into the 40s, the "electric sound" was being pioneered by jazz, country, and blues guitarists like Merle Travis and Muddy Waters.

But it was rock and roll that really popularized the electric guitar—in particular, the new solid-body guitar (as opposed to the "hollow body" of earlier guitars). Several guitar makers had experimented with the solid-body style, but it was Leo Fender, a radio repairman, who would put the style on the map in 1950, and forever changed the course of American pop music. [Image courtesy of Slash's World.]

4. Violin

The European violin—a four stringed instrument played with a bow, and held between the chin and shoulder—was developed in the 16th century to accompany dances or to echo the melody sung by a vocalist. In the 17th century, the full range of the violin was utilized in operas, concertos, and sonatas, and was used as a solo instrument for the first time.

The instrument really took off, however, in the years between 1650 and 1750, when all of Europe was succumbing to the violin craze. The hub of violin-making activity was the town of Cremona in northern Italy, where some estimates place the number of violins produced at 20,000. As home to some of the most famous violin-makers of all time, Cremona boasted the likes of Nicola Amati (who died in1684) and his apprentices, Guarneri del Gesu and Antonio Stradivari. Stradivari, of course, is better known as Stradivarius—the Latin version of his family name being the one he chose to sign his instruments with. Stradivarius was famous for his attention to detail and his experimentation, choosing different types of wood, varnishes, and structural techniques to slightly alter the sound each Stradivarius violin produced a unique tone, which is part of why they are so prized today. In the last 37 years of his life, Stradivarius cranked out an average of one instrument a week—violins and cellos—which was an astounding feat, considering the amount of attention he devoted to each instrument. There are about 1,000 "Strads" still in existence, which can each fetch up to $2 million.

5. Accordion

Beloved instrument of Steve Urkel and Weird Al Yankovic, the accordion's history lies in the wind instruments of Asian and African societies. In fact, "free reeds," which create the distinctive sound when air passes over them, have been used in Chinese instruments for over 2000 years.

The modern accordion was first designed in Austria in the early 19th century—unlike modern accordions, however, it only featured a keyboard on one side, with the other end was used to operate the bellows. Today, there are three types of accordions: the piano accordion (which has a piano-like keyboard on one end of the instrument) the concertina (a hexagonal instrument which has no keys, only buttons on each end) and the button accordion (which is pretty much what it sounds like). All three types work by expanding and squeezing together the bellows, forcing air over the free reeds inside and causing them to vibrate, with the keys and buttons determining the pitch.

6. Harmonica

In the small town of Trossingen, Germany, in 1857, a clockmaker named Matthias Hohner started producing "mouth organs," based on an earlier design by Christian Buschmann in 1821. While another Trossinger, Christian Messner, had already started manufacturing harmonicas by 1930, Hohner was the first to mass-produce them, and the first to ship them across the Atlantic to the US, in 1868. It wasn't long before the mouth organ, now known as the harmonica, became an essential component of a variety of musical styles in the west, including folk, country-western, and (of course) the blues.

7. Saxophone

The saxophone is the baby of the reed family, brought into the world in 1841 at the Brussels Exhibition by the Belgian inventor Adolphe Sax. Originally made in 14 different sizes and keys, today three or four horns dominate the scene (with the soprano, the tenor, the alto and the baritone are the most prominent). In 1845, Sax organized a "battle of the bands" in which he led a group of musicians playing his new saxophone (as well as other brass instruments) in competition against an ensemble playing the traditional instruments of the French military band. Sax's band was so enthusiastically received by the audience that the French government decided—shockingly—to adopt the saxophone as part of their standard band lineup.

How to find the image of a 17th century music instruments manufacture? - History

The Rickenbacker International Corporation (RIC) grew out of the first company founded for the sole purpose of creating and manufacturing fully electric musical instruments and amplifiers-the Los Angeles-based Electro String Instrument Corporation. Founded in 1931 by Adolph Rickenbacker and George D. Beauchamp, this pioneering firm produced "Rickenbacker Electro Instruments", the first modern electric guitars. RIC's history now spans 90 years in business on the leading edge of music trends that have changed popular culture forever. Played by Hawaiian musicians of the 1930s to jazz bassists of the 1990s, by the Beatles and Byrds to the most-current rock groups on MTV, the ringing sound of Rickenbacker instruments has helped define music as we know it. Never resting on its laurels, RIC continues to ignite and propel the electric guitar's transformation of music by providing today's musicians with the finest instruments available.

It all began in 1920s Los Angeles, a city fast becoming the entertainment capital of the world. Like many of his contemporaries, steel player George Beauchamp (pronounced Beechum) sought a louder, improved guitar. Several inventors had already tried to build louder stringed instruments by adding megaphone-like amplifying horns to them. Beauchamp saw one of these and went looking for someone to build him one, too. His search led to John Dopyera, a violin repairman with a shop fairly close to Beauchamp's L.A. home.

Dopyera and his brother Rudy's first attempt for George sat on a stand a Victrola horn attached to the bottom and pointed towards the audience. It was a failure, so the Dopyeras then started experiments with thin, cone-like aluminum resonators attached to a guitar bridge and placed inside a metal body. A successful prototype (soon dubbed "the tri-cone") used three of these resonators. Beauchamp, so pleased with the results, suggested forming a manufacturing company with the Dopyeras, who had already started making more guitars in their shop. Setting out to find investors, he took the tri-cone prototype and the Sol Hoopii Trio (a world-famous Hawaiian group) to a lavish party held by his millionaire cousin-in-law, Ted Kleinmeyer. He was so excited about the guitar and the prospects for a new company that he gave Beauchamp a check for $12,000 that night.

Substantial production of the metal-body guitars began almost immediately. Beauchamp, acting as general manager, hired some of the most experienced and competent craftsmen available, including several members of his own family and the Dopyeras. He purchased equipment and located the new factory near Adolph Rickenbacker's tool and die shop. Rickenbacker (known to his friends as Rick) was a highly skilled production engineer with experience in a wide variety of manufacturing techniques. Swiss-born, he was also a relative of WWI flying ace Eddie Rickenbacker. Well equipped to manufacture metal bodies for the Nationals, Adolph owned one of the largest deep-drawing presses on the West Coast and soon carried the title of engineer in the National Company.

Unfortunately, the seeds for an internal dispute within National were planted in the very beginning. By late 1928 the Dopyeras became very disgruntled with the management of company and resources. John Dopyera, who rightfully considered himself an inventor, ironically thought that Beauchamp wasted time experimenting with new ideas. Dopyera and Beauchamp lived in two different worlds and apparently were at odds on every level of personal, business and social interaction. That they could not work together successfully was a foregone conclusion. Another problem was Ted Kleinmeyer, who had inherited a million dollars at 21 and was trying to spend it all before turning 30 (when he would inherit another million). A Roaring '20s party animal, successful losing money faster than he could make it, he started hounding Beauchamp for cash advances from National's till. George's fault was that he could not turn people down, especially his friends and the company's president.

John Dopyera quit and formed the Dobro Corporation, but maintained National stock. The Dopyera brothers would eventually win more in a court settlement. Then Ted Kleinmeyer, nearly broke (and a few years away from the rest of his inheritance), sold his controlling interest in the concern to another Dopyera, brother Louis. In a shakeup that followed, Beauchamp and several other employees were fired. Now George needed a new project and a new company, fast.

Along with others of his day, he had thought about the possibility of an electric guitar for several years and, though not schooled in electronics, had started experimenting as early as 1925 with PA systems and microphones. Early on he made a single-string test guitar out of a 2x4 board and a pickup from a Brunswick electric phonograph. This experiment shaped his thinking and put him on the right path. After leaving National, he began his home experiments in earnest and attended night-school classes in electronics.

By 1930 many people familiar with electricity knew that a metal moving through a magnetic field caused a disturbance that in turn could be translated into an electric current by a nearby coil of wire. Electrical generators and phonograph pickups utilized different applications of this principle. The problem building a guitar pickup was creating a practical way of translating the strings' vibration directly into a current. After many months of trial and error, George developed a pickup that consisted of two horseshoe magnets. The strings passed through these and over a coil, which had six pole pieces concentrating the magnetic field under each string. (Conducting work on his dining room table, he used the motor out of the family washing machine to wind the coil. Paul Barth, who helped Beauchamp, said that they eventually used a sewing machine motor.)

When the pickup seemed to be doing its job, Beauchamp called on Harry Watson, a skilled craftsman who had been National's factory superintendent, to make a wooden neck and body for it. In several hours, carving with small hand tools, a rasp, and a file, the first fully electric guitar took form. It was nicknamed the "Frying Pan," for obvious reasons. Anxious to manufacture it, Beauchamp enlisted his friend Adolph Rickenbacker. With Adolph's help, know-how, ideas, and capital were abundant. The first name of the company was Ro-Pat-In Corporation but was soon changed to Electro String. Adolph became president and George secretary-treasurer. They called the instruments Rickenbackers because it was a famous name (thanks to cousin Eddie) and easier than Beauchamp to pronounce. Paul Barth and Billy Lane, who helped with an early preamplifier design, both had small financial interests in the company as production began in a small rented shop at 6071 S. Western Ave., next to Rickenbacker's tool and die plant. (Rick's other company still made metal parts for National and Dobro guitars and Bakelite plastic products such as Klee-B-Tween toothbrushes, fountain pens, and candle holders.)

Electro String had several obstacles. Timing could not have been worse--1931 heralded the lowest depths of the Great Depression and few people had money to spend on guitars. Musicians resisted at first they had no experience with electrics and only the most farsighted saw their potential. The Patent Office did not know if the Frying Pan was an electrical device or a musical instrument. What's more, no patent category included both. Many competing companies rushed to get an electric guitar onto the market, too. By 1935 it seemed futile to maintain a legal battle against all of these potential patent infringements.

Hawaiian guitars (lap steels) would be the best known and most accepted 1930s Rickenbackers. Early literature illustrates both 6- and 7-string versions of the Frying Pan. Both had the same cast aluminum construction, compared with the prototype's wood. Over the years (this guitar would be available into the 1950s) two scale lengths would be offered: 22 1/2 inch and 25 inch. Workers stuffed the bodies and necks with newspapers, which today can provide a clue as to the guitar's date of manufacture. Soon after the Frying Pan, several additional steel models were offered, the most popular being the hard-plastic Bakelite Model B, later named Model BD. The earliest examples had a volume control and five decorative chrome cover plates on top. By the late 1930s they had both tone and volume controls and white-enameled metal cover plates. In the 1970s, David Lindley used a Bakelite steel on many recordings with Jackson Browne, proving the integrity of the original design in a modern context. Many players consider these lap steels the finest ever produced.

Electro String's first Spanish (standard) guitar had a flattop hollow body with small F-holes and a slotted-peghead. A bound neck joined at the 14th fret. By the mid-1930s, the concert-sized Ken Roberts Model (named after one of Beauchamp's guitar-playing friends) came out. It had a bound neck that joined the body at the 17th fret, a shaded 2-tone brown top with F-holes, and a Kauffman vibrato tailpiece. In the 1930s and 1940s there were at least two electric arch top models. The SP had a maple body, shaded spruce top, bound rosewood neck with large position markers, and a built-in horseshoe pickup. The Model S-59 sported a blonde finish and a narrow, detachable horseshoe pickup. This so-called "Rickenbacker Electro peerless adjustable pickup unit" was also available as a separate accessory and would attach to most F-hole style arch tops.

Despite the popularity of arch tops, the 1935 Bakelite Model B Spanish guitar made the most history for Rickenbacker. Though not entirely solid (it had thick plastic walls and a detachable Spanish neck), it achieved the desired result-virtual elimination of the acoustic feedback that plagued big-box electrics of the day. It set the stage for all solid body guitars to follow, even though it was difficult to play sitting down on the bandstand. (A Bakelite Spanish the size most guitarists were accustomed to would have been as heavy, literally, as a sack of bowling balls.) A variation of the Bakelite Spanish invented by Doc Kauffman (who would later become Leo Fender's first partner) was the Vibrola Spanish Guitar, an ungainly thing equipped with a motorized vibrato tailpiece. So heavy, it required a stand to hold it up.

From the very beginning Electro String developed and sold amplifiers. After all, the instruments worked only in conjunction with them. The first production-model amp was designed and built by a Mr. Van Nest at his L.A. radio shop. Shortly thereafter, Beauchamp and Rickenbacker hired design engineer Ralph Robertson to work on amplifiers. He developed the new circuitry for a line that by 1941 included at least four models. The speaker in the Professional Model was designed by James B. Lansing. Early Rickenbacker amps influenced, among others, Leo Fender who by the early 1940s repaired them at his radio shop in nearby Fullerton, California.

How did Rickenbacker guitars shape the 1930s music industry? Beauchamp had many friends and contacts in the entertainment community and as a result many stars used his instruments. Sol Hoopii and Dick McIntyre, to name just two popular Hawaiian steel guitarists, played Rickenbackers on countless influential recordings. Perry Botkin, who did many recording sessions with Bing Crosby and other Hollywood stars, used one of the few Vibrola Spanish Models. Les Paul owned a Rickenbacker. Electro String even made Harpo Marx an electric harp. A family of Rickenbacker Electro String Instruments was born, all using some variation of the horseshoe-magnet pickup. Besides guitars and mandolins, the company invented fully electric bass viols, violins, cellos and violas. An electric piano prototype sat in the firm's front office for years. Most of these instruments totally disregarded traditional styling. Rickenbacker realized that a fully electric instrument did not have to retain the appearance of its acoustical counterpart. This conceptual jump-the first of several Rickenbacker revolutions-liberated the thinking of designers to come.

By 1940, after fifteen years in the fast lane, Beauchamp became frustrated and disenchanted with the instrument business, partly due to his deteriorating health. His second passion, fishing and designing fishing lures, captured his attention. He patented one that he sought to manufacture to raise the necessary capital he sold his shares in Electro String to Harold Kinney, Rickenbacker's bookkeeper. Soon after this, Beauchamp went deep sea fishing and had a fatal heart attack. His funeral procession was over two miles long. A true pioneer of electric instruments, he unfortunately did not live to see the electric guitar reach its full potential.

Hopf Violin

This violin was made in Klingenthal, Germany around 1880. This commercial violin bears a square arching and outline typically seen in Klingenthal trade instruments of the late 19th century branded “HOPF.” J. Howard Foote, in his 1882 catalog indicates: “Hopf violins are well known by their peculiar shape and color. But few Violins sold as “Hopf” are genuine. Nos. (catalog numbers) 5871-73 are made by the successor of the original “Hopf” both in name and vocation.” This instrument, Foote catalog #5872, is described as “Genuine ‘Hopf,’ extra quality, ebony trimmings and fingerboard, ‘Stainer’ model. $80.00 per dozen.”

Caspar Hopf is thought to have founded the Klingenthal tradition of violin making in the late 17th century. From these beginnings until this century, 24 makers bearing the Hopf family name worked in Saxony, primarily in Klingenthal. The family is generally known for their extensive production of inexpensive and commercial instruments for the trade. This violin is made of a two-piece table of spruce, back of maple with irregular fine figure, ribs of medium-fine figure, neck, pegbox and scroll of medium-fine figured maple, and a deep reddish-purple varnish.

Location Currently not on view Object Name violin Date made 1878-1882 Place Made Germany: Saxony, Klingenthal Physical Description spruce (table material) maple (back material) Measurements overall: 35.2 cm x 20.1 cm 13 7/8 in x 7 15/16 in ID Number MI.055677 catalog number 055677 accession number 11535 Credit Line Gift of J. Howard Foote See more items in Cultural and Community Life: Musical Instruments Music & Musical Instruments Violins Data Source National Museum of American History

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