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Hammurabi Code

Hammurabi Code



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Hamurabi was supposedly born around 1810 BC and died in 1750 BC, was the sixth king of the first Babylonian dynasty of the Amorites and the founder of the 1st Babylonian Empire, broadly unifying the Mesopotamian world, uniting the Sumerians and the Semites and leading Babylon to the fullest. splendor.

Its name remains directly linked to one of the most important legal codes of antiquity: the Hammurabi Code. Shortly after ascending to the throne, the young sovereign began the fusion of Semites and Sumerians into a political and civil unity, imposed not only by arms but also by administrative and pacifying action, thereby conquering, by agreement and war, almost all Mesopotamia.
As a legislator, he consolidated the legal tradition, harmonized the customs and extended the law and the law to all subjects. As an administrator, he surrounded the capital with walls, restored the most important temples and imposed taxes and levies for the benefit of public works, rectified the Euphrates riverbed, built new and maintained old irrigation and navigation channels, giving impetus to agriculture and commerce. in the mesopotamian plain. The conquered peoples were allowed to worship the local religion while rebuilding their cities and adorning their temples. He inserted the notion of law and commanded the territory under his power. He was the author of a famous penal code, the oldest in history, which bears his name.
The Hammurabi Code established rules of life and property, extending the law to all subjects of the empire. Its text containing 282 principles was rediscovered in Susa (1901-1902) by a French delegation in Persia, under the direction of Jacques de Morgan, under the ruins of the Acropolis of Susa, and transported to the Louvre Museum, Paris. It consists of a cone-shaped monument carved from diorite rock, in black stone 2.25m high, 1.60m in circumference at the top and 1.90m in base. The surface is covered by a dense text that has 46 columns of acadic cuneiform writing.

At the top of the monument, Hamurabi receives from Shamash, god of oracles, the laws of fairness of justice, arranged in 46 columns of 3,600 rows. In it are codified the laws of his time, of a kingdom of unified cities, a grouping of casuistic, civil, criminal and administrative provisions. It determined penalties for infractions, based on talion law: an eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth, blood for blood, flesh for flesh, and ordeal (divine judgment).

Some laws in the Hammurabi Code:
“1 - If any man deceive another by slandering this person, and he cannot prove it, then he that deceived shall be put to death;

14 - If any man steal another's minor son, he must be put to death;

21 - If any man break into a house, he shall be put to death in front of the place of burglary and buried,

48 If someone has a borrowing debt and a storm when the grain is prostrated or the crop is bad, or the grain does not grow out of water, that year you need not give your lender any money. He must wash his debit board in the water and not pay rent that year,

129 - If one's wife is caught in the act with another man, both must be bound and thrown into the water, but the husband can forgive his wife, just as the king forgives his slaves,

138 - If a man wants to be separated and his wife who bore her, he must give her the amount he paid for her and the dowry she brought from her father's house, and let her go,

194 - If someone gives their child to a nurse and the child dies at the hands of this nurse, but the mother, unbeknownst to the father and mother, cares for another child, then they should accuse her of taking care of another child. without the consent of the father and the mother. The punishment of this woman will be to have her breasts cut off. ”
Supporting material História Viva magazine, no. 50