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Gaucho statesman (1882-1954). President of the Republic who remained in office the longest. He governs the country from 1930 to 1945 and from 1951 to 1954. Between 1937 and 1945 he installed the dictatorship of the Estado Novo.
Getúlio Dornelles Vargas (19/4 / 1882-24 / 8/1954) is born in São Borja. It changes the year of its birth to 1883, it is not known why. The fact is discovered only in the centennial year of his birth, when the church in which he was registered discloses his true certificate. The falsification, the scholars discover, appears in the military certificate presented by him to the Faculty of Law of Porto Alegre. He joined politics in 1909 as a state deputy for the Rio Grande Republican Party (PRR). From 1922 to 1926 fulfills the mandate of federal deputy. Minister of Finance of the Washington Luis government, leaves office in 1928, when he was elected to govern his state. He is the commander of the 1930 Revolution, which overthrows Washington Luis. He holds the presidency for the next 15 years and adopts a nationalist policy. In 1934 promulgates a new Constitution. In 1937 Congress closes, prescribes all parties, grants a Constitution, installs the Estado Novo and governs with dictatorial powers. During this period, it adopts strong political centralization and state action. In the labor area creates the Labor Court (1939), the Ministry of Justice and the minimum wage (1940), the Consolidation of Labor Laws (CLT, 1943), the professional card, the 48-hour work week and the holidays. paid. In the state area, it creates the companies Siderúrgica Nacional (1940), Vale do Rio Doce (1942), Vale do São Francisco Hydroelectric (1945) and entities such as the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (1938). He was overthrown by the military in 1945. He returned to the presidency in 1950, elected by the Brazilian Labor Party (PTB), which he helped to found. In the last term, he creates Petrobrás and Eletrobrás. The involvement of the head of his personal guard in the attack on journalist Carlos Lacerda leads the Armed Forces to demand his resignation in the last year of his term. Suicides himself in the midst of the political crisis, shot in the chest at dawn on August 24, 1954, inside the Catete Palace in Rio de Janeiro, and leaves a will letter.