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American Statesman (1809-1865). Lawyer and anti-slavery, became one of the most important presidents of the United States.
Alongside George Washington, Abraham Lincoln is considered one of the most important American presidents in history. Born in a cabin near Hodgenville, Kentucky, on February 12, 1809, at the age of nineteen he joined the crew of a barge that transported agricultural products across the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers to New Orleans. In 1830, along with his father, stepmother, and stepbrothers, Lincoln moved to Decatur, Illinois, where he worked for some time cutting fences. In 1831 he left his home and worked in various types of jobs as a boat driver and shopkeeper.
In 1834 Lincoln was elected to the Illinois State Legislature, where he stayed until 1843. He became a lawyer in 1837 and was elected to the United States House of Representatives in 1846, where he served a term before returning to Springfield, Illinois, to practice law. A convicted abolitionist and avowed critic of slavery, Lincoln participated in several debates with American speaker and senator Stephen Douglas (1813-1861) about whether or not slavery should be legalized in the new territories that had become states.
Lincoln's brilliant oratory in the Lincoln-Douglas Debates made him nationally famous, and the newly formed Republican Party chose him to run against Douglas in the 1858 Senate elections. Although he lost, in 1860 Republicans chose him as a candidate for the President And Lincoln was elected.
On February 4, 1861, shortly after he took office, the eleven southern states - Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, North Carolina, Mississippi, South Carolina, Texas, Tennessee and Virginia - separated from the Union. and formed the Confederate States of America. Lincoln then decided to go to war to try to restore the Union. It was the beginning of the American Civil War (1861-1865), or Secession War, a conflict that shocked very different points of view. While the North wanted the United States to remain a single nation, the South intended to form two independent nations. Despite the Union's military and industrial superiority, the first great battle, which took place on July 21, 1861, had a landslide victory for the Confederacy. For two consecutive years, Union forces tried to go on the offensive, but the Confederates always defeated them.
History began to change in July 1863, when the two bloodiest confrontations of the conflict took place. Southern forces, attempting to invade the North, were detained in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. And Union forces captured the Confederate fortress in Vicksburg, Mississippi. It was during a ceremony in Gettysburg that Lincoln delivered a famous speech in which he promised that "in this nation, under the grace of God, there will be a rebirth of freedom; and the rule of the people, by the people, and for the people will not perish on earth." . Abraham Lincoln's dream of a unified country was finally assured. But, unfortunately, Lincoln himself did not survive to enjoy the hard-won peace. On April 14, 1865, while attending a performance at the Ford Theater in Washington, he was assassinated by John Wilkes Booth (1838-1865), an unemployed slave-worker who sympathized with the Confederate cause.