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For thousands of years, people have investigated space and the Earth's situation. In the year 4000 BC, the Egyptians developed a calendar based on the movement of celestial objects.
The observation of the skies led to the prediction of events such as eclipses. Since the 17th century, the pace of discovery and understanding has grown faster: we have learned more about space in this century than ever before.
Today, an astronomer is no longer a person working in various fields of science, but an expert who focuses on specific aspects of astronomical research.
In ancient astronomy, civilizations relied on the movements of bodies in space. The positions of the south and moon served to measure the weather - in days, months, seasons and years. Navigation depended on the sun, moon and stars. And because they were not well understood, some events were considered ominous.
Chimpanzee that made two orbits on Earth in 1961
During the century, the focus of astronomy has shifted. Instead of cataloging and trying to understand the motion of stars, astronomers began to try to figure out what the stars really were (study of astrophysics). In 1860, an English astronomer, William Huggins, analyzed starlight. Others took their work further and it was soon possible to classify stars by their spectrum.
Early astronomers depended only on their eyes. In the 16th century, Tycho Brahe made measuring stars more accurate with the naked eye in his observatory. The telescope was first used in the 17th century, and for years was a key tool.
In modern astronomy, as astronomers answer their questions, new problems take their place. For example, it is now accepted that the universe began with the Big Bang. But how did the Big Bang material come together to form the galaxies?
Today's scientists can work faster on such problems with the help of computers. These can solve mathematical problems in hours instead of weeks, as was normal hundreds of years ago. Computers also allow astronomers around the world to communicate so that they can work together to understand the universe.