Geography

Amazon rainforest

Amazon rainforest


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It is the equatorial forest that forms most of the Amazon. Located in the northern region of South America, it spans the territories of Brazil, Venezuela, Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, Ecuador, Suriname, Guyana and French Guiana.

However, most of the forest (around 60%) is present in Brazilian territory, in the states of Amazonas, Amapa, Rondônia, Acre, Pará and Roraima. Due to its biodiversity and importance, it was dubbed the "lung of the world".

The Amazon ecosystem is fragile and the forest lives on its own organic material. The environment is humid and the rains abundant. In the Amazon, more than one third of the planet's species live and reproduce. In addition to 2,500 tree species (one third of the world's tropical timber), the Amazon also houses a lot of water.

The Amazon River, the largest river basin in the world, cuts the region to flow into the Atlantic Ocean, releasing about 175 million liters of water every second. This number corresponds to 20% of the combined flow of all rivers of the earth. In these waters is the largest freshwater fish in the world: the pirarucu, which reaches up to 2.5 meters.

All the numbers involving indicators of this biome are huge. A good idea of ​​the exuberance of the forest is in the local fauna. Of the 100,000 plant species that occur throughout Latin America, 30,000 are in the Amazon. The diversity in plant species is repeated in the fauna of the region.

Insects, for example, are present in all strata of the forest. Creeping animals, amphibians, and those capable of climbing steep places, such as the squirrel, exploit the low and medium levels.

The highest sites are explored by hummingbirds, macaws, parrots and parakeets looking for fruits, shoots and nuts. Toucans, short-haul flyers, explore the tall trees. The intermediate level is inhabited by jacus, hawks, owls and hundreds of small birds. In the terrestrial extract are the jabutis, agoutis, pacas, tapirs etc.

Mammals take advantage of seasonal food productivity, such as fallen fruit from trees. These animals, in turn, serve as food for large cats and large snakes.

One of the main problems facing the Amazon rainforest is illegal and predatory deforestation. Madereiras settle in the region to cut and sell noble tree trunks. There are also farmers who cause forest fires to expand cultivation areas. These problems are of great concern to environmentalists, as they may soon cause an imbalance in the region's ecosystem, putting the forest at risk.

More than 12% of the original Amazon Rainforest area has already been destroyed due to inadequate government policies, inappropriate land use models and economic pressure, which has led to disorganized occupation and unsustainable use of natural resources. Many immigrants were encouraged to settle in the region, bringing with them unsuitable farming methods for the Amazon.



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