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The Indian Ocean is the third largest ocean in the world. It has an extension of 73,440,000 km², covering all the east and northeast Africa coastal countries, the South Asian coastal nations from the Arabian Peninsula to the west of Southeast Asia, Indonesia, plus the northwest, west and south. from Australia.
Its average depth is 3,890 meters and the deepest point is the Java Trench, 7,725 meters below sea level, located in southern Indonesia. The Indian Ocean is believed to have emerged in the Mesozoic Era as a result of the division of the Gondwana super continent and was the last ocean to form.
In climatic terms, the Indian Ocean habitat corresponds to an area known as the Tropical Indian Ocean. The temperature of the ocean water remains year-round above 20ºC, thus enabling the construction of coral reefs. Corals actually exist in all oceans, but only in the tropical zone do they build reefs.
Thus, the Indian Ocean is characterized by the existence of several coral islands, being in this habitat represented, from the geological point of view, the Seychelles.
Due to its relative proximity to the Antarctic Ocean, the Indian Ocean has colder temperatures in its southern part; In contrast, due to its proximity to the continent, the waters of the northern ocean are warmer.
These temperature differences between the ocean and the continent give rise to “monsoons,” winds that annually change their direction according to these variations. During summer the winds blow from the ocean to South Asia, and from South Asia to the ocean during winter. Monsoons cause droughts and droughts in some regions, and floods and floods in others.
We also highlight that the Indian Ocean has high economic importance, as it is responsible for the transport of goods, mainly from Southeast Asian oil to western countries and receives the waters of rivers important in human history such as the Ganges, and the Tigris rivers. and Euphrates, for example.