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Nathaniel Taylor Sch - History

Nathaniel Taylor Sch - History

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(Sch.) Nathaniel Taylor

Union side wheel steamer Commodore Perry captured schooner Nathaniel Taylor in the Pasquotank River, N.C., 8 April 1863. Although the schooner was not sent north fot adjudication, the Navy purchased her from the New York prize court 19 May 1863, and she was sunk as an obstruction at Petit Bois Channel.

Nathaniel Taylor Sch - History

Tennessee Genealogy Trails

Carter County

Early History

[Source: "History of Tennessee", Volume 2 By Goodspeed Publishing Company Staff pub 1887 tr. by C. Walters]

Carter County is one of the extreme eastern counties of the State. It is bounded on the north by Sullivan County, on the northeast and east by Johnson County, on the south by Unicoi County and the line of North Carolina, and on the west by Washington County. Its area is about 360 square miles. The surface is mountainous, the proportion of arable land being comparatively small. The principal stream in the county is Watauga, which receives Buffalo Creek and Doe River from the south, and Stony Creek from the north. The mineral resources are varied and extensive. The iron ores are especially valuable and prior to tho war furnace and forges were operated with profit.

The vicinity of Watauga River in Carter County is one of the most historic spots in the state since it was along this stream that the first permanent settlement was made. The first white men to visit this region and the first to make a settlement south of the present Virginia line believed to have been Andrew Greer, an Indian trader, and Julius C. Dugger, who came some time about the year 1766. The former lived on the north side of Watauga River about three miles above Elizabethton. The later lived and died at a place known as Dugger's Bridge, on the Watauga, near where Allen T. Carriger now resides. James Robertson came to Watauga in 1770, and the next year settled beyond the bluff opposite the mouth of Doe River. He remained there until 1779, when he removed to the Cumberland. Valentine Sevier, Sr., the father of Gen. Sevier, came at about the same time as Robertson. He located between Sycamore Shoals and Elizabethton, where he died in 1805. Col. John Carter, about 1770 or 1771, made a settlement one half mile north of Elizabethton. He was the progenitor of one of the most illustrious families of the State, and a most striking coincidence occurs in the political career of himself and his descendants. He was a member of two constitutional conventions of North Carolina. His son, Gen. Landon Carter, was prominent in the constitutional Convention of 1796, and his grandson, Gen. William B. Carter, was the chairman of the convention of 1834, while his great-grandson, also, William B. Carter, was an active participant in the constitutional convention of 1870. All of these men represented the same, constituency, and the last named, a Democrat, was chosen in a strong Republican District.

The first settler on Gap Creek was Simeon Bundy, whose house stood near the Big Spring, the head of that stream. Matthew Talbott also lived on Gap Creek, where he built one first mills in the State. Another was built at about the same time, perhaps a little before, by Baptist McNabb. It was on Buffalo Creek near where Alexander Anderson now lives. Charles Robertson lived on Sinking Creek on the farm now owned by Robert Miller. Michael Ryder settled on Powder Branch, about a mile from Watauga, on property still owned by his descendants. James Edens located near Big Spring, on Gap Creek, above Simeon Bundy. Thomas Gourley, William Boyd and Joseph Ryder also located in that vicinity. Col. John Tipton located in the present Washington County, but owned a large body of land in what is now Carter County, extending from Happy Valley to the farm now owned by Dr. J. M. Cameron. He became involved in debt, and his son, Samuel Tipton,who had not immigrated from Virginia with his father, purchased the greater part of this land, and made his home on Doe River, opposite Elizabethton, a little below the bridge. His brothers, Isaac and Thomas, also obtained a portion of the land Edmund Williams located on Buffalo Creek, where he entered a large body of land. He had five sons: George, Archibald, Samuel, John and Joshua. Near him was located David Pugh, a brother of Jonathan Pugh, one of the sheriffs under the dual government of Franklin and North Carolina.

The Taylor family also located in the county very early Isaac, Andrew and Abner Taylor were the first, together with their half brother, Nathaniel. The last named lived on the Watauga near the mouth of Buffalo. Isaac located on the Buffalo near where Milligan College now is, and Andrew on the south side of Watauga, at what is now known as Taylortown. Andrew Taylor built a mill on a branch of Buffalo which had fallen into disuse as early as 1800, and a second was built higher up the branch by Nathaniel. The latter was also a pioneer in the manufacture of iron, and owned and operated works on Roane Creek. The first forge in the county, however, was built about 1795 by Landon Carter, at the foot of the mountain at Elizabethton, where he also built a mill. The iron works were afterward greatly enlarged by his son, Alfred M. Carter. Several years later a forge and furnace were built about three miles above Elizabethton, and operated for a time by Joseph O'Brien and William Gott. Later it became the property of John and James O'Brien. who conducted the business for several years. It had a capacity of about one ton of merchants bar iron per day, which at that time was considered a large amount. In addition to the early settlers mentioned above were Peter, John and Henry Nave, John and William McNabb, and Jeremiah Dunjoin.

One of the first forts built in this section was the Watauga Fort, erected upon land owned by John S. Thomas, about half a mile northeast of the mouth of Gap Creek. In 1776 this fort was attacked by a large body of Cherokees. At that time it contained 150 settlers, including the entire garrison from Gillespie Station on the Nolachucky below Jonesboro. The attack was made on the 21st of July at daybreak. The women had gone outside to milk the cows and were fired upon, but made good their escape to the fort. The Indians were twice repulsed, but remained before the fort for six days, at the end of which time the approach of re enforcements from the Hoiston put them to flight. The fort was defended by Capt. James Robertson and Lieut. Sevier, with about forty men. Near this fort was built a rude courthouse and jail, erected by the Watauga Association.

A second fort was built higher up Watauga on the north side, on land then owned by Valentine Sevier, Sr., but now the property of Solomon and Abraham Hart. A third fort stood near Hampton's Station in a Cove of Doe River. Carter Womack is also said to have had a fort near the head of Wataugs. Another fort is said to have been near the site of Carter's depot.

On April 9, 1795, the General Assembly divided Washington County, and erected the eastern part into Carter County, which then included all of Johnson and part of Unicoi. The court of pleas and quarter sessions was organized on the 4th of July, 1796, at the house of Samuel Tipton. The magistrates present were Andrew Greer, Landon Carter, Nathaniel Taylor, David McNabb, Lochonah Campbell, Guttredge Garland, John Vaught, Joseph Lands and Reuben Thornton. They qualified in the following manner: Landon Carter administered the oaths to Andrew Greer, who in turn administered them to Col. Carter, and the remainder of the court, The following officers were then elected: Godfrey Carriger, register Joseph Lands, ranger George Williams, clerk John Macun, trustee Nathaniel Taylor, sheriff, and Charles Colyer, Aaron Cunningham, Samuel Musgrove, Thomas Whilson, Solomon Campbell and John Robertson, constables.

The next term of the court was also held at Tipton's. At that time Nathaniel Taylor and Nathaniel Folsom were allowed $50 for laying off the town for the seat of justice. The sheriff returned the following venire facias William Dugger, George Ingle, John Stover, John Fentress, Mathias Wagoner, Levi Loyd, Jeremiah Campbell, William Pugh, William Davis, William Dugger, Jules Dugger, Joseph Ford, John Worley, Stephen Redman, John Poland, James Range, Michael Hyder, John Peoples and Robert Lusk. The last ten were constituted the grand jury.

At the April term, 1797, the court met at the house of William Matlock in Elizabethton and soon after the minutes of the court record meetings held in the courthouse. When this building was completed or of what material it was constructed is not known, but it was probably of logs and stood on the public square. In 1820 Jeremiah Campbell. William Carter, James Keys, Johnson Hampton and Alfred M. Carter were appointed commissioners to sell the old courthouse, and superintend the building of a new one. The next year an octagonal brick building, two stories high, with the courtroom below the offices above, was completed. It stood In the center of the square. It was used the completion of the present large three-story brick building, in 1852. The commissioners appointed to erect the latter building were Godfrey Nave, C. W. Nelson, L. W. Hampton H. C. White, John Wright, Christian Carriger and Albert Tipton. The contract was let to John Lyle and William M. Fleming for $7,100. The jail was a log structure until January, 1857, when it was replaced by the present building erected upon the old site.

The circuit court for Carter County was organized in 1810, but its early minutes have been destroyed. The chancery business, previous to 1854, was done at Jonesboro. On November 27 of that year Judge Lucky organized a chancery court at Elizabethton, and appointed C. W. Nelson as clerk and master. The first lawyer of any prominence resident in the county, was James P. Taylor, the grandfather of the present governor of Tennessee. He was admitted to practice in 1815, and six years later was elected attorney general for the First Circuit, a position he continued to hold until about 1882, when he died. He is said to have been one of the finest lawyers in East Tennessee at that and as an orator he has never been excelled by one of his descendants. Alfred W. Taylor a brother of James P., began the practice of law in 1825, and continued until his death about 1856. He was a close student and an excellent counselor, but as an advocate he was inferior to his brother. Thomas D. Love, a brother-in-law of the Taylors was also a lawyer, but died somewhat early in his career. He lived near the mouth of Gap Creek.

Thomas A. H. Nelson began his legal career in Elizabethton, in 1828, death of James P. Taylor was chosen attorney-general. Among the other attorneys prior to the war were James T. Carter, C. W. Nelson, Nathaniel M. Taylor, and R. Love began the practice of his profession about 1850, and continued until his death about nine years later. Mr. Taylor remained at Elizabethton until after the close of the war, when he removed to Bristol. where he still resides. C. W. Nelson was a younger brother of Thomas A. H. Nelson. He served as clerk of the circuit court for about six years, as clerk and master about two years, and finally was appointed clerk of the supreme court at Knoxville. Later he removed to Texas. Robert Love was for many years a resident but as he had a competency, and was not dependent upon the profession, he never sought a large practice.

Among the most prominent members of the profession resident in the county since war. have been H. C. Smith and J. P. Smith, John Simerly. Maj. H.. M. Folsom, C. C. Collins and George Boren. The first named was clerk and master of the chancery court from 1862 to 1869, and in June of the latter year. was elected chancellor of the First Division, which position he filled until his death in January, 1885. Mr. Smith entered the profession a few years before the war, and from the first was regarded as an excellent lawyer. As a chancellor he has had few superiors. His term of office was filled out by Judge C. J. St. John, of Johnson City, and at the succeeding election in August, 1886, Judge J. P. Smith was elected to the office. lie began practice at Elizabethton, in 1869, and continued to reside there until elected assistant United States district attorney, which office he filled until July. 1885. In March, 1886, he returned to Elizabethton. where he now resides.

The commissioners appointed to locate the seat of justice for Carter County were Landon Carter, Reuben Thornton, Andrew Greer, Sr., Zachariah Campbell and David McNabb. They decided upon the place known as the Watauga Old Fields," which tradition says were once the site of an Indian village. When first discovered the place showed no trace of the village except that the land was cleared of everything except grass and low bushes, and it had doubtless been abandoned for many years. That such a village existed, however, is proven by the existence of an ancient cemetery on the banks of the Watauga River, a short distance above the town. Other evidence exists in implements and remains of fires which have been dug up.

The town was laid off by Samuel Tipton upon his own land, and no part of the proceeds of the sale of lots was donated to the county. Seventy-seven lots were laid off, nine of which were reserved for public buildings. To dispose of the remaining sixty-eight lots Mr. Tipton proposed a lottery, to he drawn on August 6, 1796, under the inspection of Landon Carter, John Carter and Nathaniel Folsom. Lots were sold for $10 each, and the members of the lots were placed in a box, from which purchasers drew a number for each $10 paid, and in that way their lots were located. The lots sold at this time were as follows. John Frances, Nos. 58 and 60 T. Ashe, 73 Robert English, 63 William Crawley, 74 William Matlock, 38 5. Peters, 65 Charles Reneau, 25 William Western, 52 James Lacey, 26 Leonard Bowers, 4 William McNabb, 19. Among others who purchased lots during the next year were John and Landon Carter, Charles Bailey, Abraham Bailey, Philemore Lacey and Christian Stover. The first house in the town was doubtless erected by William Matlock, who in April, 1797, applied for a license to keep an ordinary. This building now forms a part of what is known as the Cameron House. Similar houses were opened by John Greer in 1803, and John Humphreys, in 1807. The first merchants now remembered were David Nelson, whose store stood just in front of where the courthouse now is Samuel Jackson & Son and Benjamin Brewer, who had a store and tavern on the site now occupied by H. H. Snyder. All of these men were in business between 1825 and 1830. During that period Jacob Cameron opened a saddler's shop, while Benjamin Harris ran a hatter's shop, and Thomas Singletary a tailor shop. Among the merchants from this time until 1860 were H. W. & Joseph Powell, Jefferson & John Powell, Folsom & Burrows, Isaac Tipton & William B. Carter, I. K. Snapp, Jesse J. James, Rockhold & Wray and Murphy & Sons.

In 1837 the Jonesboro Republican was purchased by Mason H. Lyon and in May, following, it was removed to Elizabethton, and published as the Elizabethton Republican and Manufacturers' Advocate, by Lyon & Gott. It continued until the office was destroyed by fire about 1844. During about the same time, beginning in 1859, William G. Brownlow published his Wing. A small extra is also said to have been issued for a time by Valentine Garland ("Pompey Smash "), a printer in one of the other offices. These were the only papers published at Elizabethton prior to the war.

The population of the town has never been large. In 1830 it was 136, and by 1850 it had a little more than doubled. It is now about 500, having increased somewhat since the completion of the East Tennessee & Western North Carolina Railroad. The present business of the town is as follows: C. P. Toncray & Co., H. H. Snyder, W. L. Carriger & Co. and J.J. Edens & Son, general merchandise W. E. Carter, drugs A. R. P. Toncray, Johnson & Walters and H. C. Boyd, groceries. The manufactories consist of the Doe River Woolen mills, operated by W. M. Cameron, David Brummet and E. E. Hunter, the Watauga Woolen-mills, owned and run by J P. Scott a tannery owned by William Randolph, owned by C. P. Toncray and Edward Carter a furniture factory operated by N. G. McFarland, and a flouring-mill owned by William B. Carter.

In March, 1875, a newspaper known as The Mountaineer was established by W. R. Fitzsimmons, who has since continued its publication.

The date of the organization of the first church in Elizabethton is not known. The Presbyterian Congregation was constituted about 1825, by Rev. L. G. Bell, acting under orders from the presbytery of Abingdon. Seventeen members were enrolled as follows: Alfred M. Carter, William D. Jones and Benjamin Brewer, ruling elders and A.L. Jones, Mary C. Taylor, Mary Taylor, Elizabeth Smith, Mary A. Tipton, Ruth McLeod, William Mitchell, Elizabeth Blair, Margaret Blair, Evaline B. Carter, Ann L. McLin, Sarah S. Brewer, Isaac Taylor and James Taylor. From this time for several years Rev. James McLin preached to the congregation occupying the courthouse for the most part. He was succeeded by Rev. J. G. Ward, who remained until about 1834. J. W. Cunningham then administered to the congregation until 1841, during which time the present commodious brick building was erected. A house was first begun on the lot now owned by Maj. H. M. Folsom, but the walls when completed were found to be defective, and the contractors were compelled to take them down. The location was then changed, and the building completed in 1837. at a cost of $1,500. During this year three additional elders were ordained.

They were James C. Simpson, William R. Rhea and William Gott, to whom, in 1840, were added David Nelson, Jacob Cameron and D. W. Carter. From 1841 to 1846 the pulpit was filled by William A. Taylor and James McLin. A. G. Taylor, then preached to the congregation from November, 1846, to January, 1848, Rev. Ira Morey succeeded him continuing a year or longer. From December 1, 1850, Rev. A. A. Doak a member of the old school branch, preached one Sunday a month for one year. From that time for several years the church seems to have been without a regular stated supply, but about 1859 Rev. J. M. Huffmeister was installed as pastor and continued until 1863. From this time until about 1877 the church was again without a stated supply, although, the pulpit was frequently filled by various ministers. Since that time the congregation has been served by Rev. H. C. Atwater, Rev. C. A. Duncan, Rev. J. G. McFerrin and __ Wallace successively.

In 1887 the church edifice was thoroughly repaired and is now one of the handsomest old buildings of the kind in the State. This work was superintended and largely aided by Dr. J. M. Cameron. Besides those before mentioned the elders of this church have been William S. Thomas, John Miner, William P. Brewer, Samuel M. Stover, James M. Cameron and C. C. Collins.

The Methodist Church at Elizabethton, was undoubtedly formed prior to the Presbyterian, and like the latter, they at first held services in the courthouse and in the academy. About 1886 a small frame building was erected at the lower end of Main Street, opposite where Mr. Wilcox now lives. It was occupied until about 1859, when the present house was begun and completed a year or two later. Among the first members of the church were John Singletary, Mrs. John Wilcox and family, Joseph Taylor, John Stephens and David Adams, a local preacher.

At the close of the war the church property was sold to satisfy creditors, and was bought by a representation of that part of the membership, adhering to the Methodist Episcopal Church. The members of the Methodist Episcopal Church South then organized a congregation which has since worshiped in the Presbyterian Church. In 1842 a Baptist Church was constituted by Rev. William Cate. Among its first members were Elijah Hardin, Mason R. Lyon, Abraham Tipton, Thomas Johnson, James Renfro and J. Crouch. A house which bad been occupied by a Common school, and by a female academy, was purchased and fitted up as a house of worship. It stood on a lot now occupied by the new store house of H. H. Snyder. After the war the church did not flourish, and for several years no regular services have been held.

The first church of this denomination in the county was constituted on Sinking Creek in 1798. It was represented in the association the next year by William Wall, William Randolph, Owen Owens and James Davidson. A second church was organized on Gap Creek in 1800, and a third on Stoney Creek in 1822.

The academy incorporated for Carter County under the act of 1806 was denominated Duffield Academy and George Duffield, Nathaniel Taylor, George Williams, Alexander Doran, John Greer, Andrew Taylor, Abraham Henry and Reuben Thornton were appointed trustees of the institution. At what time a building was erected and the school put into operation is not known, but is was some time about 1820. In 1888 the old building was torn down, and a contract for the erection of a new one upon the same foundation was let to P. Q. Satterfield, and Solomon Q. Sherfy. It was not, however, until 1841 that the building, which is still standing was completed. Meanwhile a school had been taught in the Methodist Church. In October, 1841, James McLin was elected teacher. He continued in that position about two years, during which time the institution experienced its greatest prosperity. Since then schools of varying degrees of excellence, and of varying duration have been maintained. From the close of the war until 1881, the institution was under the management of Capt. J. I. R. Boyd, an experienced teacher and an excellent disciplinarian. At present the building is in a very dilapidated condition, and but little can be said in praise of the school facilities of Elizabethton.

The only school of high grade in the county is Milligan College, which was incorporated in 1869 as Buffalo Institute, and received its present charter in 1881. For a time previous to 1875 the institution was not prosperous. In that year Josephus Hopwood, A. M., assumed the presidency, and, assisted by an able corps of teachers, has placed the college in the forefront of the educational institutions of East Tennessee. The large college building is located on an eminence on Buffalo Creek, about one miles from the railroad. The school receives pupils of both sexes, and is under the auspices of the Christian Church.

The following persons have held official positions in Carter County since its organization:

Clerks of the county court-George Williams, 1796-1836 M. N. Folson 1836-40 J. L. Bradley, 1840-78 George T. Williams, 1878-86: J. G. Emmert, 1886.

Clerks of the circuit court-A. M. Carter 1810-36 George C. Williams 1836-40 Carrick W. Nelson, 1840-46 Isaac P. Tipton, 1846-54 John Singletary 1854-61 James A. Burrow, 1861-62 C. P. Toncray, 1862-66 R. C. White, 1866-70 G. W. Emmert, 1870-82 J. F. Grindstaff, 1882.

Registers-Godfrey Carriger, 1796-1827 Benjamin Brewer, 1827-36 Solomon Hendrix, 1836-40 M. N. Folson, 1840-44 Isaac H. Brown, 1844-50 W. Williams 1850-51 J. G. Fellers, 1851-60 Joseph Taylor 1860-70 A. L. Hilton, 1870-71 G. O. Collins, 1871-72 Joseph Taylor, 1872-79 W. B. C. Smith, 1879-80 E. D. Oliver, 1880-82 W. L. Carriger, 1882.

Sheriffs-Nathaniel Taylor. 1796-99 Abraham Byler, 1799-1805, Archibald Williams, 1805-18 Andrew Taylor, 1813-21 William B. Carter 1821-23 William Carter, 1823-29 William Gott, 1829-16 Abraham Tipton 1836-40 Elijah D. Harden 1840-42 Edmond Williams. 1842-48 Albert Tipton, 1848-54 Elijah Simerly, 1854-60 John K. Miller, 1860-63 Jacob Vandeventer, 1864-65 P. A. J. Crockett, 1865-66 J. W. Orr, 1866-72 E. W. Heaton, 1872-74 J. D. Pierce, 1874-77 John M. Simerly, 1877-80 James Nave, 1880-86 Isaac Grindstaff, 1886.

Trustees-John Maclin, 1796- William Peoples, Jr., 1811-18 David McNabb, 1813-17 Willie W. Williams, 1817-19 David McNabb, 1819-25 Ezekiel Smith, 1825-36 Joseph O'Brien, 1886-40 Samuel Drake, 1836-44 George Emmert, 1844-46 J. W. Ryder, 1846-52 Isaac H. Brown, 1852- 56 John Carriger, 1856-62 William Cass, 1862-65 William. J. Folsom, 1865-66 J. P. Vanhuss, 1866-72 Archibald Williams, 1872-74 J. D. Carriger, 1874-78 T. C. White, 1878-81 J. J. McCorckle, 1881-86 James L. Lewis, 1886.

Clerks and masters--Carrick W. Nelson, 1854-56 H. M. Folsom, 1856-62 H. C. Smith 1862-69 John P. Smith, 1869-70 John C. Smith, 1870-86.

Early life and military service

Taylor’s parents, Richard Taylor and Mary Strother, migrated to Kentucky from Virginia shortly after Zachary, the third of their nine children, was born. After spending his boyhood on the Kentucky frontier, Taylor enlisted in the army in 1806 and was commissioned first lieutenant in the infantry in 1808. In 1810 he married Margaret Mackall Smith (Margaret Taylor), with whom he had six children. His daughter Sarah Knox Taylor married Jefferson Davis, the future president of the Confederate States of America, in 1835, and his son, Richard Taylor, fought in the Civil War as a lieutenant general in the Confederate Army.

Taylor served in the army for almost 40 years, finally advancing to the rank of major general (1846). He commanded troops in the field in the War of 1812, the Black Hawk War (1832), and the second of the Seminole Wars in Florida (1835–42), in which he won promotion to the rank of brigadier general for his leadership in the Battle of Lake Okeechobee (1837). In 1840 he was assigned to a post in Louisiana and established his home in Baton Rouge.

Soon after the annexation of Texas (1845), President James K. Polk ordered Taylor and an army of 4,000 men to the Rio Grande, opposite the Mexican city of Matamoros. A detachment of Mexican troops crossed the Rio Grande and engaged Taylor’s forces in a skirmish (April 25, 1846) that marked the beginning of the Mexican-American War. Two weeks later Mexican troops again crossed the river to challenge Taylor, whose forces decisively defeated the invaders on two successive days in the battles of Palo Alto and Resaca de la Palma (May 8 and 9). On May 13 the United States formally declared war on Mexico. Taylor then led his troops across the Rio Grande and advanced toward Monterrey, capturing the city on September 22–23 and granting the Mexican army an eight-week armistice, an action that displeased Polk. Taylor further alienated Polk by writing a letter, which found its way into the press, criticizing Polk and his secretary of war, William L. Marcy. Polk then ordered Taylor to confine his actions to those necessary for defensive purposes and transferred Taylor’s best troops to the army of General Winfield Scott. The following February, however, Taylor disobeyed these orders and with his diminished force marched south and, in the Battle of Buena Vista, won a brilliant victory over a Mexican army that outnumbered his troops by about four to one.

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On May 7, 2018, the day before the tour kicked off at Glendale, Arizona, Swift invited 2,000 foster and adopted children to a private dress rehearsal. [14] On May 8, 2018, Swift announced two shows in Tokyo, with Charli XCX as the opening act. [15] In September 2018, Broods was announced as an opening act for the Oceania leg of the tour. [16]

The tour received rave reviews from critics, being commonly labeled as the best of Swift's career thus far and the best tour of 2018. [17] [18] [19] The concerts were complimented for Swift's on-stage persona and intimacy with the audience, the versatile set list and the transition between songs, production value, the stripped-down performances and wardrobe choices, with many commentators noting the Gothic visuals and costumes, and the Broadway theatricality of the show. [18] [20] [21]

Stereogum ' s Chris DeVille deemed it a "hyper-maximalist" tour and "a perpetual gargantuan flex, a roving musical Infinity War that amplifies everything extra about her persona to an exponential scope" and added that it is designed to be "the biggest spectacle in all of summer entertainment". He also described the tour as "an oversized, high-tech touring Broadway production with a mostly tremendous soundtrack" and concluded that "when discussing the biggest artists of her [Swift's] generation, she's undeniably on the shortlist" and that the singer has ascended to the same "rarefied" tier as the "classic rock deities who've echoed across this venue [the Horseshoe] before her, able to keep commanding stadium status for the rest of her career". [21] Rob Sheffield of Rolling Stone named the tour as Swift's "most astounding tour yet" and complimented it for giving "it all the vibe of a mass communion" despite aiming for "maximum stadium-rock razzle-dazzle bombast". He observed the acoustic performances of Swift's fan-favorite deep cuts and dubbed them "a powerhouse performance that made all the different Taylors sound like part of the same story". [22]

The Guardian ' s Bob Gordon thought that ". Ready for It?" is "an appropriate and compelling opener". He opined that Swift made a "striking entrance" with "no elevation or descent, simply walking out from behind a curtain bathed in brilliant white light, in what was a real 'now I'm here' moment, as Freddie Mercury would once have put it". [23] Awarding the tour five stars, Roisin O'Connor of The Independent lauded the set-list and how it "transitions seamlessly from one song to another, crafted out of some of the best from Swift's canon". Also, she compared the tour to a Broadway show, because the stage was "flooded with red lighting and dancers swing from trapeze with all the splendour of a Broadway show". [20] Lydia Burgham of The Spinoff defined the tour's Auckland concert a "theatrical, mega-production that somehow also strips down to raw intimate moments". Commenting on the set-list, she noted that Swift "had the crowd aching for more with the commencement of every song, thanks to seamless transitions". Burgham highlighted the intimacy of Swift's acoustic guitar and piano performances that proved Swift remaining "integral to her singer-songwriter origins". She summarized her review by stating that "there may not be an artist in this lifetime who quite manages to connect to thousands of people on a rainy night as well as Taylor Swift can – and that's the reputation she will be remembered for". [24]

Variety ' s Chris Willman wrote that the show "had plenty of fierceness, especially in the early going" but also the "pre-decedent Taylor on the line… the guileless Swift we remember from two or three skins ago", and commended Swift for using her two hours on the stage to "paint a rewardingly holistic picture". Willman believed that, despite the huge production, "we're still left not so much with dragons or defensiveness but in the endearingly earnest presence of pop's most approachable superstar". He further remarked that the acoustic performance of "Dancing With Our Hands Tied" proved that Reputation worked acoustically as well, without the "Max Martin-izing". [25] Randy Lewis of Los Angeles Times wrote that Swift gave "a master class in the constructive use of the modern technology that's allowed her to establish and nurture an exceptionally powerful connection with a massive audience." He underlined the use of light-up bracelets that allowed the attendees "to feel like participants, even collaborators, rather than passive observers" and appreciated the stage's resemblance to "a skyscraper in progress, with six crane-like contraptions stretching up above a wedge-like screen". Lewis summarized the show as "tightly structured for the most part, featuring elaborate production numbers that rely on video projection, eye-popping lighting and pyrotechnics, choreography and precisely coordinated interaction among the star, band, singers and dancers". [19]

Reviewing for V Magazine, Greg Krelenstein stated that Swift possesses "a rare gift of turning a stadium spectacle into an intimate setting", with the new persona the singer adopted on Reputation album cycle suiting itself "excellently to a show of this magnitude where she appears larger than life". He thought that Swift fully embraced her vast back catalog and praised her command of the stage—"whether plucking a guitar or leading an army of dancers" that showed that Swift's musical and performance evolution is an "absolute success". Krelenstein concluded that the pop star "delivers in every way to a mesmerized and devoted audience, re-defining what the modern stadium tour can be". [18] Ed Masley, from The Arizona Republic, wrote that "there were many moments in the course Swift's performance that felt like she was playing to the back rows of the stadium by simply sharing with her fans", while complimenting the tour's production and Swift's connection with the crowd. [26] Jim Harrington of The Mercury News asserted that the singer's vocal work and performance skills have improved over the years, and added that "her game is well-rounded enough that she can excel equally at every different aspect of the show." [27] Chris Tuite, from CBS San Francisco, wrote: "The only thing more prominent than the singer herself during her current costume-change filled spectacle are the massive, vicious looking snakes that symbolically appear throughout the set." [28] Michael Tritsch from 303 Magazine raved that the tour "broke new ground and set the bar high for future stadium tours", burning "its way into the history books". [29]

Ticket sales

After four days of sales through the Verified Fan platform and three days of sales to the general public that began December 13, the tour had already grossed $180 million from 33 dates in North America alone. [30] Pollstar reported data supplied by the Gridiron Stadium Network, a consortium of NFL facilities that work together to book concerts at their buildings, which showed at least 35,000 tickets had been sold at ten of the stadiums on the route as of December 18. The tickets sold ranged from 35,419 at Heinz Field in Pittsburgh to a high of 48,039 at Lincoln Financial Field in Philadelphia. With more than 47,000 tickets sold, it was reported the May 12, 2018, date at Levi's Stadium in Santa Clara was generating close to $9 million in ticket revenue, which prompted the addition of an extra date. [31]

According to StubHub, the tour is the best-selling female tour in the United Kingdom in 2018. [32]


The first seven shows of the tour grossed $54 million with 390,000 tickets sold, leading Swift to the top of Billboard ' s Hot Tours chart in June 2018. [33] She performed to sold-out crowds of 59,157 in Glendale and 107,550 in Santa Clara (over two nights), grossing $7.21 million and $14 million respectively, while the Pasadena shows combined for a gross of nearly $16.3 million and Seattle accounted more than $8.6 million. [33] [34] [35] The concerts in Louisville and Columbus, reported in July 2018, grossed $11.5 million with around 115,000 tickets sold, with the latter city having the highest gross and most tickets sold, with approximately 63,000 tickets and $6.6 million. These concerts led the singer once again to the top of Hot Tours chart. [36]

The tour has broken multiple venue attendance and grossing records. The debut performance at University of Phoenix Stadium set new venue records in both gross and attendance, topping Metallica's $5.2 million gross earned in August 2017 by almost $2 million. With 59,157 tickets sold, she also broke the attendance record set during One Direction's Where We Are Tour in 2014 by 2,633 seats. [37] With a $14 million take from 107,550 sold tickets at Levi's Stadium she topped her own gross and attendance counts set during The 1989 World Tour in 2015. With more than 118,000 fans in attendance at the Rose Bowl, the two-show run earned $16.2 million and set a new gross record for a single headliner at the venue, surpassing U2's 2017 record by over $467,000. Grossing records previously set by U2 as well were broken at Seattle's CenturyLink Field, where she topped their Joshua Tree Tour 2017 gross by $2.4 million, and Denver's Sports Authority Field at Mile High, where she surpassed the $6.6 million gross set by the band in 2011 during their 360° Tour by $1.2 million. [33]

Swift made history by becoming the first ever female artist to headline Dublin's Croke Park twice, with reportedly 136,000 fans in attendance. [38] Similarly, she achieved the milestone of becoming the first woman to headline three consecutive nights at MetLife Stadium [39] and Gillette Stadium. [40]

Following the tour's 29th show in North America at Hard Rock Stadium in Miami, it had grossed $202.3 million in the continent ($191.1 million in the United States and $11.1 million in Canada) thus breaking Swift's own record of the highest grossing North American tour by a female artist, previously held by The 1989 World Tour, with fewer dates. [41] Nevertheless, the tour eventually broke the record set by The Rolling Stones's A Bigger Bang Tour, to become the highest-grossing tour in US and North American history, grossing $266.1 million, besting The Stones' $245 million gross. The Stones achieved their then-record from 70 American shows, while Swift did it with just 38 shows. [42]


2021 Schedule of Events
Please check back for updates regarding Covid-19 restrictions or cancellations. At this time all guests are asked to wear a mask and respect social distancing guidelines while inside all our museum facilities.

Public Open House
Second Thursday of the month April – December 1-6
Dr. John Bloomfield Home & Carriage House Museum
View the 1894 Victorian home with period furnishing, various photography, textiles, artwork and more from Henry County and Northwest Ohio. Carriage House ‘Prohibition of the Experience: Exhibit’ Open to the public.

Annual Meeting
April 29, 5-7p.
Dr. John Bloomfield Home & Carriage House Museum
This members ONLY event is a special time for them to vote on the election of new officers. Due to Covid-19 restrictions and concerns this event will not feature food or light refreshments. Tour the the Bloomfield & Carriage House Museum.

Mother’s Day Tea
May 8, 1:30pm.

(CANCELLED DUE TO COVID-19 Check back for this event in 2022)
Dr. John Bloomfield Home & Carriage House Museum
$18 non-member/$16 member
For reservations call 419.966.0058

Plant Sale
May 20, 9-3pm.
Dr. John Bloomfield Home & Carriage House Museum Gardens
Get your garden ready by coming to the Dr. John Bloomfield House & Carriage House Museum Gardens and purchasing your very own flowers and plants. This is a great way to the support the HCHS with your purchase while beautifying your home and garden! This event will be a socially distanced outdoor event. Want to donate flowers or plants for the sale? Call 419.966.0058

Fireside Chat #1
May 27, 7-8p.
Nathaniel Hartman Log Home: Henry County Fairgrounds
Former President of the Fallen Timbers Commission and HCHS member Dave Westrick will present a talk on the Battle of Fallen Timbers which took place outside of Henry County on August 20, 1794. Learn the significants of the battle and get a play-by-play of the battle as it unfolded. This program will take place at the Nathaniel Hartman Log Home. Reserve a seat by calling 419.906.1660
HCHS Members $5.00
Non-member $10.00

Simon Girty Fest
June 19, 11-8p.
Dr. John Bloomfield Home & Carriage House Museum Complex and surrounding streets!
Come celebrate the history, arts, and culture of Henry County and Northwest Ohio at this unique arts event! Featuring artisan vendors, farmers market goods, and more! Check out our home page for more details including food, musical entertainment, reserving seats, and purchasing tickets to see the Jolly Gabbers that night!

The Jolly Gabbers of Perrysburg Ohio will headline and close out Simon Girty Fest with a front lawn concert! Ticket reservations required!

Fireside Chat #2
June 24, 7-8p.
Nathaniel Hartman Log Home: Henry County Fairgrounds
Joel Burg is a re-enactor portraying many eras and individuals in American History and his son Tyler, who is a member of the HCHS and active with many re-enactments will present To Steal a Train. This is the story of Andrew’s Raiders and the Great Locomotive Chase. During the American Civil War, James Andrew and 20 union soldiers from Ohio traveled deep into the South to steal a train and burn bridges to disrupt the Confederate Army war efforts. The plans no only sound dramatic, but truly becomes dramatic! Reserve a seat by calling 419.906.1660
HCHS Members $5.00
Non-member $10.00

Fireside Chat #3
July 29, 7-8p.
Nathaniel Hartman Log Home: Henry County Fairgrounds
President of the HCHS and member of the Black Swamp Intertribal Foundation Taylor Moyer will present a special program on the Shawnee American Indian village site of Snake Town once located in Florida, Ohio. Reserve a seat by calling 419.906.1660
HCHS Members $5.00
Non-member $10.00

Henry County Fair & 18th Annual Living History Encampment
August 12-18
Nathaniel Hartman Log Home: Henry County Fairgrounds
Join us as we celebrate Henry County’s past, present, and future this year during the Henry County Fair! Tour the 1897 Emmanuel Lutheran One-room Schoolhouse & Museum and explore the unique exhibits showcased from local residents, community organizations, and the HCHS. View original school desks, a clock, and chalkboard from the Southside School and more. Don’t forget our large collection of Heller-Aller tools and implements from Henry County and Napoleon iconic and world renowned windmill factory. If you are interested in displaying anything unique to Henry County or Northwest Ohio history please contact Jean Keller 419.766.0202.

The Living History Encampment will be back again this year! We will be filling to site with mix of historically authentic camps from Ohio’s early frontier history in the 1790s, through Statehood in 1803, the War of 1812, and the American Civil War! Tour the camps daily August 12-15 from 11:00am.-dusk.

The Nathaniel Hartman Log Home c. 1860-1866 will be open daily as well and have some of the earliest artifacts in the HCHS collection on display. This year we will feature a special exhibit on the early history of Henry County and its development.

Napoleon Fall Festival
September, TBA
Nathaniel Hartman Log Home: Henry County Fairgrounds

Harvest Tea
September 26 1:30pm.
$18 non-member/$16 member
For reservations call 419.966.0058

Fireside Chat #4 History of the American Funeral
Thursday October 28, 7-8p.
Nathaniel Hartman Log Home: Henry County Fairgrounds
Explore the historical values, beliefs, and traditions of the American funeral with President of the HCHS Taylor Moyer. This will be the final Fireside Chat for the 2021 season.
Reserve a seat by calling 419.906.1660
HCHS Members $5.00
Non-member $10.00

Christmas Open House
Saturday December 11, 1-8p.
Sunday December 12, 1-5p.
More information to come closer to the event!


Nathaniel Philbrick was born in Boston, Massachusetts, and grew up in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, where he attended Linden Elementary School and Taylor Allderdice High School. He earned a BA in English from Brown University and an MA in America Literature from Duke University, where he was a James B. Duke Fellow. He was Brown University’s first Intercollegiate All-American sailor in 1978, the same year he won the Sunfish North Americans in Barrington, RI. After working as an editor at Sailing World magazine, he wrote and edited several books about sailing, including The Passionate Sailor, Second Wind, and Yaahting: A Parody.

In 1986, Philbrick moved to Nantucket with his wife Melissa and their two children. In 1994, he published his first book about the island’s history, Away Off Shore, followed in 1998 by a study of the Nantucket’s native legacy, Abram’s Eyes. He was the founding director of Nantucket’s Egan Maritime Institute and is a research fellow at the Nantucket Historical Association.

In 2000, Philbrick published the New York Times bestseller, In the Heart of the Sea, which won the National Book Award for nonfiction. The book was the basis of the 2015 movie of the same title directed by Ron Howard. The book also inspired a 2001 Dateline special on NBC as well as the 2010 PBS American Experience film “Into the Deep” by Ric Burns. In 2019, the National Endowment for the Arts added the book to their ever-growing library of 32 titles in the NEA Big Read program under which libraries and non-profits can apply for grants in order to develop in-depth, community-wide programming around a common book.

His next book Sea of Glory was published in 2003 and won the Theodore and Franklin D. Roosevelt Naval History Prize and the Albion-Monroe Award from the National Maritime Historical Society.

The New York Times bestseller Mayflower was a finalist for both the 2007 Pulitzer Prize in History and the Los Angeles Times Book Award, won the Massachusetts Book Award for nonfiction, and was named one the ten “Best Books of 2006” by the New York Times Book Review. In June 2020, Penguin will publish an updated trade paperback edition with a new Preface to coincide with the 400th anniversary of the Mayflower’s arrival in Plymouth Harbor.

In 2010, he published the New York Times bestseller The Last Stand, which was named a New York Times Notable book, a 2010 Montana Book Award Honor Book, and a 2011 ALA Notable Book. Philbrick was an on-camera consultant to the 2-hour PBS American Experience film “Custer’s Last Stand” by Stephen Ives.

In 2011 Philbrick’s Why Read Moby-Dick? was a finalist for the New England Society Book Award and was named to the 2012 Listen List for Outstanding Audiobook Narration from the Reference and User Services Association, a division of the ALA. That year Penguin also published a new edition of his first work of history, Away Off Shore.

In 2013 Philbrick published the New York Times bestseller, Bunker Hill: A City, a Siege, a Revolution, which was awarded both the 2013 New England Book Award for Non-Fiction and the 2014 New England Society Book Award as well as the 2014 Distinguished Book Award of the Society of Colonial Wars.

In 2016, he published the New York Times bestseller Valiant Ambition: George Washington, Benedict Arnold, and the Fate of the American Revolution, winner of the 2017 George Washington Book prize, the James P. Hanlan Book Award, and the Harry M. Ward Book Prize.

In March 2018, Penguin published a new edition of his sailing memoir Second Wind: A Sunfish Sailor, an Island, and the Voyage that Brought a Family Together. Later that year Philbrick published the New York Times bestseller, In the Hurricane’s Eye: The Genius of George Washington and the Victory at Yorktown, a finalist for the George Washington Book prize and the winner of the Commodore John Barry Book Award for American Maritime Literature.

Philbrick has also received the Byrne Waterman Award from the Kendall Whaling Museum, the Samuel Eliot Morison Award from the USS Constitution Museum, the Nathaniel Bowditch Award from the American Merchant Marine Museum, the William Bradford Award from the Pilgrim Society, the Boston History Award from the Bostonian Society, the Cushing Award from the American Association of Neurological Surgeons, the Ruth Ratner Miller Memorial Award from the Friends of the Concord Free Public Library, the America and Sea Award from Mystic Seaport, a Lifetime Achievement Award from the New England Historic Genealogical Society, the Walter Cronkite Award from Sail Martha’s Vineyard, the Harris Collection Literary Award from the Brown University Library, the Jennie F. McLauthlen Award from the Kingston Public Library, the Award of Distinction from the National Maritime Alliance, the Washington Irving Award for Literary Excellence from the Saint Nicholas Society, and the Sarah Josepha Hale Award from the Richards Free Library in Newport, N.H. He has received honorary doctorates from the Massachusetts Maritime Academy and Roger Williams University.

Philbrick’s writing has appeared in Vanity Fair, The New York Times Book Review, The Wall Street Journal, the Los Angeles Times, and The Boston Globe. He has appeared on the Today Show, the Morning Show, Dateline, PBS’s American Experience, C-SPAN, and NPR. He and his wife Melissa still live on Nantucket.

Is spontaneous human combustion real?

For several centuries, people have debated whether human beings can spontaneously combust, or burst into flames without being ignited by an external source. Though the first known accounts of spontaneous human combustion (SHC) date all the way back to 1641, the phenomenon gained wider exposure in the 19th century after popular author Charles Dickens used it to kill off one of the characters in his novel 𠇋leak House.” When critics accused Dickens of legitimizing something that didn’t exist, he pointed to research showing 30 historical cases. More recently, cases of SHC have been suspected when police and fire department officials have found burned corpses with unscathed furniture around them. For instance, an Irish coroner ruled that spontaneous combustion caused the 2010 death of 76-year-old Michael Faherty, whose badly burned body was discovered near a fireplace in a room with virtually no fire damage.

Because the human body is composed mostly of water and its only highly flammable properties are fat tissue and methane gas, the possibility of SHC being an actual phenomenon seems remote. Many scientists dismiss the theory, arguing that an undetected flame source such as a match or cigarette is the real culprit in suspected cases. Typically, deceased victims are found close to a fire source, and evidence suggests that many of them accidentally set themselves on fire while smoking or trying to light a flame.

On the other hand, believers point to the fact that the human body has to reach a temperature of roughly 3,000 degrees in order to be reduced to ashes. Unless SHC were a genuine factor, it seems impossible that furniture would not burn as well. Proposed causes of the supposed phenomenon include bacteria, static electricity, obesity, stress and—most consistently𠅎xcessive consumption of alcohol, but none have been substantiated by science so far. One recent hypothesis comes from British biologist Brian J. Ford, who in August 2012 described his experiments with combustion in the magazine New Scientist. According to Ford, a buildup of acetone in the body (which can result from alcoholism, diabetes or a specific kind of diet) can lead to spontaneous combustion.

10 Things You May Not Know About Jefferson Davis

1. Davis was not a secessionist leader.
Less than two months before his inauguration as Confederate president, U.S. Senator Jefferson Davis opposed secession for his home state of Mississippi. While Mississippi Governor John J. Pettus and other state leaders advocated immediate secession in the weeks following the 1860 election of Abraham Lincoln, the slaveholding Davis urged caution. While he firmly believed states had the constitutional right to secede from the Union, he was among a committee of 13 U.S. senators who attempted to find a suitable compromise after South Carolina left the Union in December 1860. After Mississippi seceded in January 1861, Davis declared that his allegiance to his state required him to abide by its decision and leave the U.S. Senate.

2. As a West Point cadet, Davis was arrested for participating in the 𠇎ggnog Riot.”
Although alcohol had been banned at the U.S. Military Academy after a rowdy Fourth of July party the year before, the teenaged Davis was among the cadets who smuggled liquor into the barracks for a yuletide drinking party before reveille on Christmas morning in 1826. Officers who discovered the illegal party placed Davis under arrest in his room. Nearly 100 other inebriated cadets, however, disobeyed officers’ orders and began to break windows, smash furniture and even draw swords against their superiors. Davis was confined to his quarters for more than six weeks, but his compliance when arrested likely spared him the fate of a dozen of his fellow cadets, who were expelled for their participation in the 𠇎ggnog Riot.”

3. He was named after a Founding Father.
The Confederate president was named after his father’s political hero and the sitting American president at the time of his birth—Thomas Jefferson.

4. A future U.S. president was his father-in-law.
After graduating from West Point, Davis was stationed in the Wisconsin Territory under Colonel Zachary Taylor. In August 1832, near the conclusion of the Black Hawk War, Davis met the colonel’s daughter, 18-year-old Sarah Knox Taylor. The pair fell in love, but for two years Taylor denied Davis permission to marry his daughter until finally relenting. Less than three months after they wed on June 17, 1835, Sarah died of malaria. During the Mexican-American War, Davis once again served under Taylor, and his heroics at the Battle of Buena Vista in 1847 reportedly caused the American general to say apologetically to his one-time son-in-law, “My daughter, sir, was a better judge of men than I was.” Taylor’s wartime exploits propelled him to win the presidential election of 1848.

5. Davis served as U.S. Secretary of War.
Just eight years before assuming the presidency of the Confederacy, Davis led the U.S. military as Secretary of War under President Franklin Pierce, a fellow Democrat whom he had supported in the election of 1852. In his post, Davis attempted to innovate the military, advocated for the federal government to build a transcontinental railroad, supported the Gadsden Purchase from Mexico and supervised the expansion of the U.S. Capitol.

6. He established the U.S. Camel Corps.
Since horses and mules had difficulty traversing the arid territories of the West newly acquired by the United States in the 1840s and 1850s, Secretary of War Davis received congressional approval to purchase camels from the Middle East to use as military pack animals. The Camel Corps experiment showed some promise but ultimately fizzled when the outbreak of the Civil War took priority and the development of the railroad ultimately proved the idea obsolete.

7. Contrary to reports, Davis was not dressed as a woman when captured.
When Davis was seized on the drizzly predawn morning of May 10, 1865, he was wearing a loose-fitting, water-repellent overcoat, similar to a poncho, and his wife’s black shawl over his head and shoulders. Northern newspapers twisted the story and gleefully reported that Davis had been captured while disguised in women’s clothing, while popular lithographs portrayed caricatures of Davis in hoop skirts and bonnets. Secretary of War Edwin Stanton kept the overcoat and shawl from public view rather than puncture the myth.

8. Abolitionist Horace Greeley and other notable Northerners posted his bail.
Davis was imprisoned in Virginia’s Fort Monroe for two years after his capture during which time he was indicted for treason. In May 1867, he was released on $100,000 bail, most of which was posted by a surprising group—prominent Northerners including Greeley, editor of the New York Tribune, business magnate Cornelius Vanderbilt and Gerrit Smith, who was among the “Secret Six” who funded John Brown’s raid on Harper’s Ferry. The Northerners advocated for a speedy trial or release of Davis in order to heal the country.

Nathaniel Taylor Sch - History

NEGenWeb Project - Loup County
Who's Who in Nebraska, 1940

OUP County is pre-eminently a Nebraska sandhill region. Trisected by two spring fed, constant flowing rivers, the North Loup and the Calamus, its settlement as an agricultural effort was inevitable. Unorganized territory as late as 1883, it has nevertheless, a traditional, lengendary (sic) and written history of Indians, border outlaws, trappers and cowboys, those colorful groups who first roamed its fertile valleys, its wooded canyons, and its shifting sand dunes.
Jack Swearenger, "Happy Jack," who came up the North Loup Trail in 1868, was a trapper, an Indian fighter and government scout around Fort Hartsuff. It was during his trapping days that he spent one winter on the North Loup river in Loup County territory. His camp may have been on Spangler's Island a mile east of the Sawyer Ranch. The date is fixed as 1869.
A maurading band of Sioux who feared and hated the "Pathfinder of the North Loup," captured him one day when his habitual vigilance relaxed. Securely binding him with rawhide thongs, his savage foes prepared to burn him at the stake. "Happy Jack's" stoical acceptance of the situation as the end of his trail awoke admiration in the heart of the chief. Bravery in the face of inevitable torture and death accomplished what pleading could not. Jack was given his freedom in characteristic spectacular manner by the chief. Leaping into the circle of firewood he kicked it aside, slashed the captive's bonds with his flashing hunting knife, and shouted:

"Heap brave paleface! No fear death! Brave, no can kill!" he decreed. The warriors standing about echoed the chief's decree.
A few years later "Happy Jack" led a volunteer company of settlers in pursuit of a band of Sioux who had stolen a bunch of horses from homesteaders in Valley County. The whites were attacked by the redskins, not far southeast of the present town of Taylor.
A bloodless battle ensued. Bloodless because the settlers were poorly armed and the Indians did not shoot to kill. They were more eager to escape with the horses, valued at $1500, than with scalps. This encounter is known as the Battle of Sioux creek, since the settlers had camped on the canyon the night before the attack. The canyon which drains the south-lying clay bluffs has been known as Sioux creek since then. The late Peter Mortensen, who was a participant in the fray, fixed the site on a high bank of the river, eight miles northwest from the camping ground. The battle occurred in March, 1873.
During the spring of 1876, the T. W. Williams and Benjamin J. Harvey settlements, then the outposts, became frightened by Indian uprisings and massacres further west. Acting upon the advice of Captain Samuel Munson of Fort Hartsuff, the settlers constructed a temporary fort on the Rodney P. Alger homestead. It was strategically located and was named "Fort Rodney." A dozen families formed the garrison and remained there several weeks.
During the surveying of Loup County territory by the government in 1870-71, the surveying corps had perhaps three disastrous encounters with Indians, recounts tradition. Once near the Middle Loup river the Sioux pillaged the camp and burned all the supplies they could not carry away. Again in the vicinity of Madison Square they attacked the camp when the men were away. Helping themselves to the supplies they desired, they left the dead body of the cook as a gruesome reminder of their visit.
Spring creek, as early as 1870, was the scene of an encounter on the William Stevens place between Indians and government surveyors, according to legend. The men with the chain and compass held their redskin attackers at bay until darkness covered their escape by way of the river.
Among the border outlaws of the Sandhill region were Doc Middleton and his so called lieutenant "Kid Wade." In 1884 the "Kid" slipped down from the hideout in the Niobrara country and escaped with valuable horses from the 0. S. Pulliam and Jack Roath farmsteads.
During the regime of ranch and cowboy, the Sawyer Ranch was the first established in Loup County territory. After sixty years have elapsed it is still known by the same name and is owned by a grandson of the founder. In 1879 Bethuel Switzer Sawyer from Maine and his three sons Frank, Fred and George, filed on government claims in the extreme west end of Loup County territory. From here they operated wide-spread ranching activities which extended as far as Enders Lake in Brown County. The lake was named for one of the Sawyer cowboys, Ed Enders. Fred and George were typical cowboys Frank was the first Loup County clerk.


Who's Who

The Calamus river valley has been the range area of Loup County. Davie James is given credit for bringing to that region the first Hereford cattle. Here too that picturesque frontiersman "Nigger Amos" ranged vast herds collected each year from the farms of the North Loup valley. Others who ranged hundreds of cattle in the Calamus country forty years ago, are the Hesselgessers, A. B. Stark and sons, Strohl Brothers, Buels, Davis. Perhaps the earliest cowboy character in Loup County was the late Richard R. Greenland, a son-in-law of the earliest settler, Benjamin J. Harvey. He was said to have made drives from Texas over the famous Chisholm Trail and worked on ranches in the vicinity of Ogallala and Sidney.
The entire North Loup valley was settled under the protecting influence of Fort Hartsuff. Tradition states the first white settler in Loup County territory came some time prior to 1874. Herman Bainfield was living a few miles southeast of the present town of Taylor when the first group of settlers arrived. They were Benjamin J. Harvey, Rodney P. Alger, John R. Goff, D. L. Bowen, A. M. Gurnsey, Richard R. Greenland and William Burns, all of whom filed entries upon government land in 1874.
Kent postoffice was established in 1877 and A. M. Gurnsey was the postmaster. The office was named, some persons said, for Kent, England, the birthplace of one of the settlers. During the summer of 1876 and the spring of 1877, the Kent settlement was supplemented by David A. Gard and family Sylvester A. Moon, with his wife and two sons Arthur E. and Alanson S. Edward H. Taylor and family Isaac Stover and Thomas W. Williams and family. Before the opening of 1880 many additions were made to the Kent settlement and west up the river. Among these were John G. Van Houten, Uriah Bromwich, Nathan E. Fay, Thomas Croughwell, Jacob and Wesley Strobl, Henry H. and Calvin L. Copp, Stephen and Jacob Roblyer, H. Raines, all with their families, and many others. In 1880, A. Kitzmiller established a trading post at Kent, the first in the Loup County territory.
Early in 1883 county organization became the outstanding public question. The temporary seat of government was fixed at Kent. David A. Gard, on whose homestead Kent was located, was appointed special county clerk, and special county commissioners were A. M. Gurnsey and John G. Van Houten. The name "Loup" was given to the territory to be organized, honoring the principal river flowing through its largest valley. The area was 576 square miles and was 40 percent tillable land.
An election of county officers was fixed for May 3, 1883, and resulted in the following settlers being chosen: Frank H. Sawyer, clerk Benjamin J. Harvey, judge Joseph Rusho, treasurer Alanson S. Moon, superintendent A. C. Alger, sheriff A. J. Roblyer, surveyor Jacob Scribner, coroner George W. Strohl, Nathan G. Fay and H. L. Reniff, commissioners.
An election to determine the permanent seat of government was fixed for July 23, 1883, and Aug. 4 of the same year the commissioners declared Taylor the permanent county seat.
Taylor was the townsite sponsored by Joseph Rusho who had settled upon a homestead adjoining the site on the west early in 1878, after spending several months in the vicinity of Fort Hartsuff. Almeria, George Wesley Strohl's town, lay eleven miles up the river Clark's Point was midway between Almeria and Taylor. Kent, too far east to be a logical site, gave her support to Almeria, and Taylor won by only two votes.
On March 4, 1884, George W. Strohl filed a suit against the "Town of Taylor and Joseph Rusho managing proprietor of said Town," alleging in the petition six causes for action, "fraudulent, corrupt and illegal voting" and giving the names of those guilty as well as those responsible for the alleged illegal balloting. The action never came to trial and was dismissed one year later by the plaintiff.
On Oct. 5, 1886, a petition signed by 90 electors of the newly organized Blaine County asking that it be annexed to Loup County, was filed with the Loup County board of commissioners. Another county seat fight was in prospect in both counties. The annexation petition seems to have been a scheme to move the center of population near Almeria, thus giving voting strength to make that village the county seat. Those signing the Blaine County petition are said to have been the sponsors of Ladora, who were in fear of losing the county seat to Brewster. The Loup County commissioners, however, refused to grant the petition and Taylor has been the seat of government since its establishment in 1883.
In October of 1893 Robert Harvey of Grand Island, who had surveyed most of Loup and Garfield county territory, measured and platted Taylor townsite of thirty-two blocks. Joseph Rusho is remembered as the "Father of Taylor." He named the town in honor of his friend Edward H. Taylor. Rusho is credited with gifts of several lots and buildings to the county, town and individuals. The courthouse block and building were his gift to Loup County citizens. The public square or present city park he donated to his town, and to the Loup County Clarion, a newspaper, he gave a lot and an office. Taylor grew rapidly and prospered during those early years when nature was prodigal in gifts of grain.
The Loup County Clarion, now the Taylor Clarion, was established in the fall of 1883 at Kent. Its founder and first editor was Charles L. Phillips. It was moved to Taylor in 1884 and has been published continuously in Loup County since its establishment. Missing files make it difficult to name all publishers, but among them are the names of William Croughwell, J. B. Lashbrook, W. J. Toste-


in Nebraska


vin, Evans Brothers, William Evans, E. Andrews whose editorship extended over a period of many years, and Anson K. Holmes. The present owners and editors Thurman A. and Laura E. Smith, purchased the plant in 1920.
The Loup County News was established in 1902 by R. S. Scofield who later sold it to John G. Wirsig. The Taylor Republican was established by E. Andrews who disposed of it when he purchased the Clarion. The Loup Valley Alliance was established in Taylor, but in a short time it was consolidated with the Republican and moved to Burwell in 1888. For many years the Taylor Clarion has been the only paper in Loup County.
The Tucker Post G. A. R. was organized in Taylor June 18, 1887. The first officers were: George W. Merrill, A. C. Johnson, T. T. McCord and Caleb Jeffers. It had a large membership and was active until the death of its commander and last member, Lewis F. Ruppel, on Oct. 6, 1931.
The Loup County Agricultural Society was incorporated in 1890 with George F. Scott as its first president and Heman E. Carter secretary.
The Ladies Library Society was established in 1890. Those active in the organization and its further development were Mrs. George F. Scott, Mrs. H. E. Carter, Mrs. Joseph Rusho, Mrs. George P. Emig, Mrs. Marion M. Roblyer, Mrs. George W. Clay and others. The library is still active. The little building owned by the society is the same structure presented to the Taylor Clarion for office purposes in 1884 by Joseph Rusho the lot on which it stands is the gift of Charles Emig, a son of one of the organizers.
The Grange is the most active organization in the county at the present time, with a membership of nearly 200. The four subordinate groups are: Madison Square, organized in March 1933 Dry Valley, organized in October 1933 Kent, organized in February 1934 Almeria, organized in April 1934. Pomona Grange, the county organization, was formed in Taylor in May 1934. J. H. Roblyer is the present master.
Benjamin J. Harvey was not only the first settler but undoubtedly was the first ordained minister in the county. He held religious services in the valley at least eight years before the first church was organized.
The Catholics never erected a church in Loup County. In 1879 the Thomas Croughwell family and Mrs. Joseph Rusho were perhaps the only members of that religion in the territory embraced by Loup County. A priest from Broken Bow said Mass in the Croughwell log cabin home regularly. In later years a Croughwell daughter, Mrs. Catherine Largey, opened her Taylor home for Catholic services.
The First Methodist Episcopal Church of Taylor was incorporated March 1, 1883. Rev. E. B. Crippen was the first pastor. Joseph Rusho sold the organization two lots at half price, on which a parsonage was erected and arrangement made for a church building. But the church was never constructed and the organization was discontinued after a few years.
A Baptist Church was organized by Rev. W. T. Powers in 1897. Rev. S. D. Hulbert was a long-time minister of this organization and sponsored Sunday School work in the sandhill region.
A Free Methodist class was established in Taylor and held services regularly for many years. Mrs. Eliza Raish was one of the most active ministers of this sect and often spoke to the Taylor class. The membership a few years ago transferred to the Sargent organization, although a few persons united with the Calvary Evangelical Church in Taylor.
The First Congregational Church of Taylor was incorporated July 17, 1893. The organization has continued active through the years and now has a modern church building and parsonage. The present pastor is Shelby J. Light.
A Methodist Episcopal Church was organized and incorporated at Long Valley in western Loup County Sept. 12, 1909. Rev. Mr. Brink of Burwell was the organizer and later Rev. Albert Elliott became regular pastor. The church building was a large sod structure, which was not uncommon in the early days in the sandhills.
The Calvary Evangelical Church was incorporated in Taylor, July 18, 1925, with the Rev. F. M. Cook, pastor. This organization owns a modern church building and parsonage. The present pastor is Rev. Harold 0. Massie.
A United Brethren Church was formed in Dry Valley in 1894. Rev. Simeon Austin organized the class and held services there over a long period. Mrs. Eliza Raish, a pioneer Free Methodist minister also held services from time to time. The church was of sod, and tradition relates the pews were of the same material.
The Congregational Church has maintained a membership and preaching service in Dry Valley for the past thirty years or more as a part of the Blaine County Greater Parish.
The Loup County Bank was established in Taylor, June 26, 1886. It was owned and operated by F. A. Dann and A. U. Dann, and was the first institution of its kind in Loup County. The Taylor State Bank was incorporated July 27, 1891. Officers and directors were George F. Scott, Joseph Rusho, William Belcher, William L. McMullen, John M. Conrad and John G. Sharp.
The Bank of Taylor incorporated July 20, 1905. Officers were John M. Conrad, William L. McMuIlen and Cora M. McMullen. This bank has operated continuously since its organization and is the only banking institution in Loup County at present. The Old Gold Bank organized and was incorporated December 16, 1913. Officers and directors were



Who's Who

Frank Satterfield, Thomas F. Croughwell, Bernard F. Croughwell, James H. Harvey and William Cooney. This bank closed its doors in 1924.
The seventies and early eighties were a period of prodigal yields. Corn was heaped in huge piles on government claims where sod house and barn, a "grasshopper breaking plow," and a yoke of oxen or cows were the farmer's equipment. A great variety of crops was raised but corn was king. Thousands of trees were planted, adding charm and utility to the bare sweep of the northwest valley. Many orchards appeared and some fine fruit was produced.
In 1889 and 1890 there was a serious lack of rainfall in the sandhills, and some settlers deserted their claims. Others made final proof, negotiated loans of a few hundred dollars and departed for parts unknown. Those with backbone stayed on at the cost of privation and even suffering.
The most devastating drouth came in 1894 when the Sandhill region became as arid as a desert, and was forced to accept relief. Loup County applied to the Nebraska State Relief Commission for aid and Luther P. Ludden of Lincoln was general manager of this emergency created commission.
Eight irrigation projects were filed in Loup County during the years of 1894-1896. Half that number constructed canals and operated for a year or more but soon a cycle of heavier rainfall lessened irrigation needs. One of the eight is in operation today--the Newton Irrigation company.
This company filed articles of incorporation Nov. 27, 1894. Signers of the articles-pioneers of irrigation in the valley were William Moninger, Calvin L. Copp, George W. Abbott, Allen C. Abbott and Luman Hopping. Their canal was reclaimed several years ago by State Senator A. C. Van Diest who has a large and well developed acreage under its flow. This project has nine miles of canal in Loup County and approximately 10,000 irrigable acres, though much less area is developed.
During the recent drouth period two other irrigation projects have been constructed and are in operation. One is the North Loup River Public Power and Irrigation project, which has three canals and includes more than 38,000 irrigable acres in three counties--Loup, Garfield and Valley. The Taylor-Ord canal headgate and dam, five miles northwest of Taylor, is a huge cement-steel reinforced structure. Eighteen miles of this largest of the three canals are in Loup County.
The Almeria Public Power and Irrigation project, with nineteen miles of canal, is entirely within Loup County. Its headgate and diversion dam is near Moulton postoffice.
Irrigation projects which constructed canals and operated for a short period were: Burwell Irrigation Canal, incorporated 1894 Almeria Irrigation Canal, incorporated 1895 Tzchuck Canal Co., incorporated 1895. Wet seasons made these investments total losses.
Today the North Loup river valley in Loup County has forty-six miles of irrigation canals in operation. The estimated irrigable area is 20,000 acres. This does not include the Calamus valley.
Among the earliest mercantile establishments in Loup County are the names of Otto Witte, George Cleveland, George W. Drew, E. H. Snow, Wheeler & Scott, Joseph Kriegel and Joseph Rusho, in Taylor. In Almeria were G. W. Strobl, Fred Hoellworth, Jim Richey, and others.
The first tavern or roadhouse in Loup County territory was the "Farmers' Hotel" at Sioux Creek. It was patronized by many who traveled up the North Loup valley during the early eighties, as was the Union Hotel at Kent. There was also a "Farmers' Hotel" at Taylor and the Snurr House at Almeria. Livery barn haymows were used by freighters as sleeping quarters, and no livery barn office was considered complete without its cook stove, skillet and coffee pot.
The Pavilion Hotel at Taylor was erected in 1887 by attorney Heman E. Carter. It was a three story 40x4O structure with kitchen, storeroom and servants' bedroom addition. It was reputed to be the best hostelry west of Grand Island. The building, more than a half century after its construction, is now used for apartment and office purposes.
Loup County has never had a railroad in operation. However, four companies indicated an interest in building lines through this region by filing articles of incorporation.
The Lincoln Black Hills railroad filed articles on Aug. 23, 1887 and during that year constructed a grade across the southwest corner of the county. This was completed ready for track from Sargent to within five miles of Brewster in Blaine County. The company also constructed another grade up the Calamus river to the vicinity of Valleyview. Neither branch ever had one foot of track laid, but both right-of-ways have in recent years been utilized as highway grades.
The Nebraska Western Railroad company filed articles of incorporation March 16, 1889. The devastating drouth in this part of the state at that time may have had much to do with curtailment of further activities. It did account for the C. B. & Q.'s dropping plans for a direct line through Burt, Cuming, Stanton, Madison, Boone, Wheeler, Garfield, Loup and Blaine Counties west across the state. About nine miles of grade were built.
The first Loup County school district was organized in 1876, seven years before county organization. This district was under the jurisdiction of Valley County. The first term of school, three months in length, was held in a sod schoolhouse on Section 36-21-18, district No. 9 which contained more than thirty square miles of territory. Rose Harvey, daughter of Benjamin J. Harvey, was the first teacher in this district.
Kent and Taylor school districts were organized in 1883, and the Almeria district in 1885. High


in Nebraska


school subjects were taught in Taylor as early as 1884 but the first accredited high school in Loup County, also in Taylor, was not formed until 1922. Taylor's first school was in a log cabin in 1881- 82. It was taught by Matt Chesebrough, it is believed. A two-room building was erected in 1884 which served with an addition until 1922 when a consolidated district was formed. Taylor has at this time a $45,000 plant, the only high school in the county. The faculty now numbers ten.
Rural schools are fewer in number than forty years ago. Nine districts have closed because there are no children. The present valuation of rural school property is fixed at $40,000, a large increase over that of a half century back. In those days a sod house, home-made benches and nondescript text books were considered adequate equipment for the teacher who was paid $25 per month.
During the Kinkaid period there were forty-two school districts, and the school census reached its highest mark. Almost without exception rural teachers during the past decade have been graduates of the Taylor high school professional training department. Marcia C. Smith, the present county superintendent of schools, has served in this position for twenty consecutive years.
Five years of unprecedented drouth have had a devastating effect upon Loup County. Forests, natural in the canyons, groves and windbreaks set by pioneers fifty and sixty years ago, have been greatly damaged, but reforestation projects are replacing many. Farms reached the lowest point in production during the past half century. The cattle and hog industry was cut alarmingly. Land values were the lowest in years, and many farmers lost their farms to loan companies. However, irrigation is reclaiming the North Loup valley. Increased rainfall in 1939 restored the sandhill range areas to much of their former fertility. The picture is one of normalcy if not of greatly increased prosperity.
Sixty-five years have brought many changes, some for the worse, many for the better. As the rocky, barren coasts of New England in the days of the Pilgrims produced a race of hardy, highminded folk, so have the shifting but unchanging sandhills bred a race of unconquerables -- sons and daughters of Loup County pioneers, to whose memory this historical sketch is dedicated.

ABBOTT, GEORGE WASHINGTON: Farmer & Stockman b Tama Co, Ia Dec 23, 1862 s of John Abbott-Jane Warner ed Tama Co Ia m Mary J McCurdy June 30, 1890 O'Neill, (dec) s Walter (dec) Earnest John d Elsie (Mrs William Harden), Nellie (dec) 1884 filed on homestead in newly organized Loup Co, farmer since 1886-93 Loup Co commr mbr sch bd 25 years 1894- pres Newton Irrigation Dist supports irrigation projects for Loup Co hobby, travel res Almeria.

ALDER, ALBERT FRANKLIN: Attorney b Stockton, Mo Aug 8, 1896 s of Simon Alder-Nancy Leeper ed Garfield Co Burwell HS Fremont Normal 1915-17 Neb Wes U of N m Roxie Campbell Feb 13, 1916 Taylor d Truie Vee 1916-17 rural sch tchr, Loup Co 1921-22 P M, Taylor 1918-19 farmed in Loup Co 1919-20 opr produce bus, Taylor 1922-26 sch tchr, Taylor 1926-37 tchr HS Taylor 1929-34 Loup Co judge 1931- prac law, Taylor 1934- Loup CO atty Neb St Bar Assn Loup Co Service Club supt of SS, Evang Ch Rep res Taylor.

AUSTIN, ELMER EUGENE: Farmer b Whiteside Co, Ill Jan 23, 1861 s of Rev Simeon Austin-Betsy Maria Whitten ed York Co m Cora Ellis Oct 22, 1885 York Co s Vilas Fern, Sterl, Evan Boyd d Eitel (Mrs Fred Schipporeit), Ruie Inez (Mrs Stewart Griffith), Avis Jean (Mrs Curtis Copp) 1871 came to York Co with parents, who filed on homestead 1890 homesteaded in Loup Co 1890- owner & opr of farm including original homesite 1914- P M, Moulton 1892- correspondent for Taylor Clarion co assessor, 4 years mbr sch bd Natl Grange played baseball for North Loup League 25 years U B Ch Rep hobby, music res Moulton.

BEALS, JOHN ALEXANDER: Retired b Shelby Co, Ill Sept 23, 1864 s of Nathan Beals-Margaret Ramsey ed Shelby Co Ill m Ella Strohl Mar 1891 Taylor s Jacob, James, Ross d Nellie (Mrs C Hobler), Minnie (Mrs Charles Johnson), Bertha, Stella, Maggie (Mrs Andy Moley), Lola (Mrs Al Engler) 1885-89 moved to Sarpy CO, engaged in various enterprises 1889-1904 farmed in Loup Co 1904-17 opr gen mdse store, Almeria 1917-19 farmer sold land holdings in 1919 1919- co tax assessor 1919-38 leased town hall, opr of picture shows has 1000 A of land under lease in Loup Co hobby, working for community welfare res Taylor.

BROWN, HARVEY RAYMOND: Merchant b Loup City, Neb Apr 25, 1877 s of Green P Brown-Alice Benschoter ed Burwell m Jennie E Smith Aug 10, 1901 Deadwood S D s Stanley Keith d Greeta Patience (Mrs Arthur Hauke), Alice Mims (Mrs Henry M Hyde), Grace Julia (Mrs J T Christian), Aural Harvetta (Mrs E C Rabyler) 1901 filed on homestead in Garfield Co, farmed & raised cattle 1916 pur half int in Taylor hdw & lbr bus, prop since has 3 farms & a ranch in Loup Co stockholder & dir Bank of Burwell mbr town coun 20 years chmn & past mbr consolidated sch bd 14 years Neb Retail Hdw Assn Neb Lbr Mchts Assn AF&AM OES Rep hobby, gardening father homesteaded in Sherman Co 1873 res Taylor.

EVANS, GEORGE ALEXANDER: Rancher & Stockman b Winterset, Ia Nov 26, 1863 s of Hugh Evans-Susan K Davis ed Madison Co Ia m Nettie J Hooper June 30, 1890 Taylor d Christena Ann (dec), Mahala Catherine (Mrs John Ward), Ina Esther (Mrs Joseph Kaspar), Blanche Martha (Mrs Dana Newbury), 1884-86 farmed in Adair Co Ia 1886-87 worked at Taylor 1887-90 took pre-emption claim in Blaine Co 1890-99 homesteaded in Loup Co 1899-1912 owner of ranch, stock raiser near Taylor 1903-05 in impl bus, Taylor 1912-13 traveled in Kas & Okla 1913- rancher & stock raiser N of Taylor 1901-35 Loup Co sheriff intermittently for 22 years co road supvr, surveyor & assessor in early 1900's 1915-21 asst P M, Taylor pres Loup Co Farmers Union pres Fed Land Bank Assn, Loup Co pres Loup Valley Natl Farm Loan Assn pres Evans Clan Assn North Loup Valley Hist Soc Dem Congl Ch hobbies, travel & collection of historic data res Taylor.

GOOS, FREDERICK AUGUST: Rancher & Stockman b Schleswig Holstein, Germany Sept 2, 1874 s of Henry Goos-Catherine Schutt ed Schleswig Holstein HS m Maude Darling May 18, 1904 Loup Co s Theodore Henry, Frederick Carl, Ralph Allen, Kenneth Stanley Bruce d Anna Amelia Katharina (Mrs E E Campbell), Freda Violet, Etta Mabel (Mrs Blaine Harris), Rose Hope (Mrs (Fritz Brockman) 1886 came to US later homesteaded in Scotts Bluff Co 1900-03 moved to ranch 12 miles N of Fort Laramie Wyo, raised cattle 1903- came to Loup Co & settled on homestead, now owner & opr cattle ranch including original homesite consisting of 8,800 A running an average of 600 head of cattle under Dogshead brand mbr sch bd Luth Ch Dem hobby, travel res Taylor.


Watch the video: NATHANIEL TAYLOR TRIBUTE (June 2022).


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